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42 five cameras in each bus and external cameras as well (one forward-facing camera and, for half of the fleet, a curbside camera; in the future, a driver-side camera will be added). Real-time wireless transmission capability, though desired, is not possible at this time because of bandwidth issues. Wire- less uploading of video and audio recordings will be possible with the new system. Pinellas Transit also cooperates with St. Petersburg, Clearwater, and other local law enforcement by making video and audio recordings available to them upon request. Because the recordings have been requested fre- quently for all types of crime, addressing these requests has been time-consuming for Pinellas transit staff. The surveil- lance system recordings have been used on a daily basis by the agency for incidents between operators and passengers, passenger complaints, accident investigations, and liability claims and have been useful in prosecuting criminals. PSTA's new video and audio surveillance system cost less than $1 million and will have wireless download capability. This system will be funded through stimulus grants. Coast Mountain Bus Company, British Columbia, Canada Since the first phase of camera installation was completed in 2009, benefits in terms of identifying, locating, and prose- cuting operator assailants have been seen by CMBC. There have also been numerous requests from various jurisdictional police for video clips of criminals. In addition, the video FIGURE 24 Video cameras in TTC buses. (Courtesy: Toronto footage has facilitated accident investigations and passenger Transit Commission.) and driver claims. veillance capability. There are two "live" microphones within the bus, each attached to one of the cameras. One is usually Toronto Transit Commission, Toronto, Canada near the operator's seating area and the second one may be placed in the middle of the bus. Legal issues may arise in Video cameras (see Figure 24) were installed in the entire states in which two-party consent is necessary for audio TTC fleet between 2005 and 2006 at a cost of $17 million. recordings. For instance, Connecticut state law requires con- The deployment of the surveillance system was prompted by sent of both parties to record audio; this dissuaded GBT from increased violence in the system, in particular, the wounding pursuing audio surveillance. Agencies in these states that of a girl in 2004, and the shooting of an operator in 2005. decide to implement audio surveillance have addressed the When a crime occurs on TTC buses, the photo of the legal concerns by posting appropriate signage about the audio assailant is obtained from the video recording and posted in surveillance on their buses. TTC's operating divisions (depots). There are five cameras in each bus, and one forward-facing camera on the windshield (see Figure 25). Video serves as legal evidence and has been Advantages extremely useful in prosecuting assailants. Also, operators Agency perspective--serves multiple purposes, includ- have a favorable opinion of the video system because the ing the deterrence of assaults and crime; provision of technology is able to support their versions of incidents. legal evidence to help identify, capture, and prosecute offenders; and the efficient disposition of cases/incidents. AUDIO SURVEILLANCE Significant savings can be realized by eliminating or mitigating fraudulent claims. Audio is also useful as a Studies have shown that verbal assaults can often be precur- training and post-incident analysis tool. If video surveil- sors to physical assaults (25). Therefore, addressing verbal lance system is already installed, audio capability should assaults can prevent physical attacks, provide data on the be present and does not require the installation of addi- types of verbal assaults that are occurring, and help create tional equipment. Wireless systems are able to transmit training content and response strategies for bus operators. performance reports of equipment to the agency and can Typically, video surveillance systems also offer audio sur- automatically save tagged audio to the agency server.

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43 FIGURE 25 Images from four of the six video cameras in a TTC bus. (Courtesy: Toronto Transit Commission.)

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44 Bus operator perspective--increased perception of secu- boy. The operator succeeded in breaking up the fight, and the rity; audio recordings can also support their version of man exited the bus. However, he returned and assaulted the an altercation or incident. If they are physically assaulted operator. The audio and video surveillance recording is being or verbally threatened, the recording can help law used to identify and prosecute the perpetrator of this incident. enforcement identify and capture the perpetrator. About a decade ago, when Metro's original surveillance sys- Customer perspective--increased perception of security. tem was installed, unions and operators were apprehensive about it, fearing that it might be used to discipline operators. Therefore, the agency informed their operators that the sys- Disadvantages tem will not be used for disciplinary purposes and has been careful not to do so. The operators now perceive the system Bus operator perspective--feelings of invasion of pri- to be a positive one and support its use. vacy, feelings of unease about audio being used for dis- ciplinary purposes. Customer perspective--feelings of invasion of privacy. King County Metro Transit, Seattle, Washington Requires time and effort to transfer audio from a bus to a central server, especially if system is not wireless; All King County Metro Transit buses with video surveillance also, time and effort are needed to tag, store, and retrieve also have audio surveillance. Because the state of Washington audio. requires second-party consent for recordings, signs alerting Other requests, including those for public disclosure, customers to the video and audio surveillance system are may increase. posted on the bus. Passengers, however, are not often aware of the signage. Therefore, bus operators are taught to inform prob- Agency Experience lem passengers about the video and audio surveillance system and that their behavior and speech are being recorded. This has Greater Cleveland Regional Transportation helped stop conflict situations from escalating into assaults. Authority, Cleveland, Ohio GCRTA has installed digital video and audio surveillance on IndyGo, Indianapolis, Indiana 21 of its 500 buses. Also, all future bus purchases will have both video and audio surveillance. Within the first week of IndyGo utilizes audio recording devices that are attached to use of the surveillance system, a GCRTA passenger sliced video surveillance equipment on each bus. Each IndyGo bus another passenger's throat. Although the video recording had is equipped with two audio microphones. There is a micro- image clarity problems, the audio recording was instrumental phone at the front of the 40-ft bus that captures audio in identifying, locating, and prosecuting the assailant. between the operator and passengers, and one near the center of the bus that captures conversations in the back portion of the bus. The audio records simultaneously with the video. Metro Transit, Madison, Wisconsin IndyGo has not experienced any legal issues surrounding the use of audio surveillance equipment. Madison Metro serves the Madison, Wisconsin area. Metro recently completed installing a digital video and audio sys- tem on all of its 211 buses. Signage about the audio and video Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority, surveillance system is posted on Madison's buses. Compared St. Petersburg, Florida with the older super-8 system, the new digital system is sig- nificantly better in terms of video and audio quality and stor- PSTA installed audio along with video surveillance in its bus age capacity. Inside the bus, the system has four cameras fleet in 2004. One microphone is attached to each camera, and along with four audio microphones. The audio records simul- uploading of video and audio recordings is wireless. To taneously with the video. The DVR stores up to 160 GB or address the legal department's concerns about the use of audio about several days of information. When a driver or police surveillance, signage regarding video and audio recordings reports an incident, agency staff manually obtains the data was placed on all buses. from the DVR by connecting it with a PC--this requires two full-time staff members. The surveillance system has been used frequently for multiple purposes--identifying and pros- VIA Metropolitan Transit, San Antonio, Texas ecuting assailants and other criminals, determining what occurred during an incident (e.g., disputes between operator VIA provides transit service to the San Antonio area, which and customer), facilitating accident investigations, assessing spans 1,226 mi2. VIA served 46.8 million passengers in FY liability claims. Archived recordings, both audio and video, 20072008. VIA provides audio as well as video surveillance can be reviewed by police or others authorized to access the on board its buses. A separate audio system is connected with system. An incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 involved VIA's video surveillance system. Recordings have been used a middle-aged man who started fighting with a 15-year-old by the agency and police to identify and prosecute offenders,