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50 areas: knowledge of the city of Winnipeg; knowledge of the throws a projectile at the bus or the bus operator, the Manitoba Driver's Handbook; ability to work with money, bus is immediately stopped and the police apprehend time, and schedules; and the ability to learn policy and proce- the suspect. dure. Step 3 is the driving aptitude test. Step 4 consists of a Bicycle and motorcycle patrols--In crowded locations competency-based interview, criminal records investigation, and congested streets, the increased mobility of the bike reference checks, and medical examination. The interview or motorcycle patrol officer allows faster response to questions are based on the following competencies: Citizen and calls for assistance by the bus operator. Customer Focus; Respecting Diversity, Ethics, and Values; Canine patrol--Some agencies utilize highly trained Integrity and Trust; Results Oriented; Composure; Patience; canine units for mobile patrols along designated bus Approachability; Compassion; Informing; Humor; Listening; routes. These units are often utilized to track down sub- Time Management; Conflict Management; and Work/Life jects who have assaulted operators and find evidence at Balance. Step 5 is the operator selection process in which the a crime scene. candidates with the greatest potential will be selected. Fixed post assignments--These officers are assigned to secure key bus or intermodal terminals. POLICING Advantages Uniformed officers are very effective in preventing operator assaults and other crimes. At the same time, it is cost- Officers are specifically trained to prevent crime and prohibitive for officers to ride every bus on every route. There- enforce the law, respond to incidents, locate and appre- fore, a strategic allocation of resources to high-crime locations hend criminals, and understand the legal justice system. Visible patrols on foot or in squad cars deter crime and and routes is important to enable rapid response to crime and operator assaults, and enhance passenger perception of to identify and capture offenders. Use of plainclothes officers security. on board buses is effective in apprehending offenders and get- Plainclothes officers are able to apprehend suspects and ting them out of the system. Marked vehicle patrols can serve criminals, taking them out of the system. as a visible deterrent to crime and can shadow buses on routes Flexible deployment is possible; if there is a sudden with high numbers of incidents. Larger systems have their own increase in crime on certain bus routes, officers can eas- transit police or security personnel and do ride checks and ily be redeployed to the routes. inspect buses for problems. Some agencies reimburse local Officers patrolling the system can interact with the oper- law enforcement or use off-duty officers for protection. ators and the public to obtain potentially important Smaller agencies without their own police or security person- information about suspicious individuals, incidents, and nel need to work closely with local law enforcement to ensure activities, and get better situational awareness. good response when incidents and crimes occur. Many agen- cies allow officers to ride their system free of charge. Agencies that have their own officers or security use patrol and other Agency Experience policing techniques, including the following: Pierce Transit, Lakewood, Washington Marked police vehicle patrol--Marked vehicle patrols Pierce Transit serves a population of more than 710,000; its bus enable quick response to crimes in progress along bus system consists of 929 buses and 37 light-rail trains. Pierce routes. Transit formed the first official Transit Police Department (PD) Directed patrol--Directed patrols proceed to designated in Washington State in 2006. Pierce Transit works collabora- locations and board random buses to check on the well- tively with local law enforcement on various transit security being of the operator and the riding public. initiatives. In 2009, Pierce Transit created the Uniformed Secu- Park and ride--An officer in a marked vehicle parks rity Division with "Special Commissioned Officers," a more his or her vehicle at a terminal, boards a bus, and rides cost-effective solution than its contracted services. Transit the bus until it returns to the terminal. Police consists of the full-time unit with nine officers, and the Plainclothes operations--Undercover officers may be off-duty unit with off-duty officers from the Tacoma and Lake- assigned to patrol buses. Compared with uniformed wood police departments. Pierce Transit has reduced the over- officers, plainclothes officers are more likely to observe all criminal activity in the transit system, including operator offenders in the act of committing a crime, including assault, by more than 60% in the last 3 years as a result of the operator assault, fare evasion, and quality of life viola- Pierce Transit Police Department's successful implementation tions such as vandalism. Targeting fare evaders and of initiatives including the following: quality of life offenses have been shown to reduce the likelihood of more serious crimes. Proactive enforcement team--The Proactive Enforce- "Trojan" buses--Plainclothes officers, appearing to ment Team focuses on problem-oriented policing be ordinary passengers, are assigned to ride buses methodologies and may work either in uniform or plain equipped with reinforced windows. If an individual clothes, with marked or unmarked cars.