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53 ter. In large quantities, the cost can be reduced by 50% or even criminal charges; some operators may view it as more. Each canister has a shelf life and warranty of 4 years. another element that the operator needs to learn about and take responsibility for. Agency perspective--potential for increased operator SELF-DEFENSE TRAINING aggression towards customers, increased risk of agency liability. Self-defense training for bus operators has been implemented by some agencies. Because self-defense can subject the agency and the user of the techniques to civil or criminal liability, it is Agency Experience important to have an instructor with a law enforcement back- ground or, at a minimum, familiarity with the legal aspects of Pierce Transit, Lakewood, Washington self-defense. Self-defense-from-a-seated-position training is provided to their operators by some transit agencies, such as Pierce Transit's police department provides self-defense- Pierce Transit. Experts believe that it is the best self-defense from-a-seated-position training to its bus operators. The train- position for operators because (1) the operator while on duty is ing, developed by a police officer, consists of handouts, a quiz, usually in the seated position; (2) there is only one angle from and a video. The training is mandatory for bus operators, but which the operator can be attacked when seated; (3) in such the physical portion is voluntary to ensure that operators do not position, it is more difficult for the attacker to knock an opera- aggravate any existing condition. Typically, most operators do tor down; and (4) emergency communications is within reach participate in the physical portion of the training. Physical self- of the seated operator. Agencies that have not implemented defense has been used about 10 times by Pierce Transit bus self-defense training have not done so owing to potential liabil- operators during the past 20 years. The self-defense technique ity issues. TTC, for instance, decided not to provide self- has been used properly, and no lawsuits have been filed as a defense training to its bus operators because of liability result of its use. concerns. Although some operators believe that their responsi- bilities should not include physical self-defense because they are Defensive techniques are demonstrated in the classroom not police officers, others are eager to avail themselves of the using chairs similar to bus seats. Students perform the tech- training. The two U.S. transit agencies discussed in the self- niques initially in the classroom, and on the four types of defense training profile summaries operate in "shall-issue" buses driven by operators. The training also involves how to states for concealed firearms, Washington and Kansas. These reduce fear, importance of wearing the right types of shoes, states are also considered permissive, open carry friendly states. and importance of physical fitness. Demonstrations of the rear hammer fist, back elbow, palm heel strike, knee-shin-toe, and kicking, as well as proper use of the bus controls are also pro- Advantages vided. This self-defense training has been taught by Pierce Transit instructors not only to Pierce Transit bus operators Bus operator perspective--increased perception of but to operators at several other transit agencies as well. security, empowerment, and management support for operators. Customer perspective--because the self-defense train- Transit Authority of River City, ing is not visible, unlike self-defense tools, customers River City, Kentucky may not experience an increased concern for their secu- rity on their route. Self-defense training is provided by a martial arts and tae Ease of deployment--training content and format may kwan do instructor who works as a contractor for TARC. be based on existing training being provided to bus The 3-h training class is provided to new operators. Current operators or on self-defense classes being provided to operators receive refresher training on a periodic basis. airline personnel. Much of the training focuses on the ability of the operators to defend themselves from a seated position. This training Disadvantages was initiated about 2 years ago and was chosen as a security measure over barriers and compartments, which were Use of self-defense techniques is hands-on and may viewed by TARC as a possible hindrance to customer ser- expose operators to further attacks and incite assailants vice and operations. TARC has a relatively high number of to increase the intensity of the attacks. wheelchair passengers, and a barrier or compartment would Training is required, including refresher training. impede the operator's ability to serve them in a speedy man- Bus operator perspective--feelings that enforcement- ner and could cause service delays, diminishing the reliabil- type actions are not be a part of his or her job, discom- ity of TARC service. The cost of the training is $300 per 3-h fort with this type of training; improper use of the class; the number of participants allowed in each class is technique may expose the bus operator to lawsuits or unlimited.

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54 Calgary Transit, Alberta, Canada Calgary Transit's "Out of the Blue" course objective is to provide operators with the skills to create a safe and secure workplace by recognizing and managing conflict. The course elements are perspective, recognition, understanding, and support/follow-up. Instruction on several defensive maneu- vers from a seated position is provided to operators, who are advised to stay in their seat at all times, if possible, while in customer service. Operators are encouraged to practice the self-defense techniques on their own. What to do after an assault, including calling control, obtaining witness informa- tion, and reporting incidents are also taught. Of the operators participating in the course, 75% to 80% have provided a pos- itive assessment of the training. Calgary Transit received a CUTA award for Best New Project in 2007 for this course. FIGURE 28 Calgary Transit's Out of the Blue self-defense training. (Courtesy: City of Calgary 2005 Out of the Blue Self-defense techniques are one of the several key elements presentation.) of the course. The other portions of the course--perspective, recognition, and understanding--seek to instruct operators on ways in which conflict situations might be defused before they guidance on how to avoid or deter conflict, a discussion of per- escalate. The perspectives portion of the course provides oper- sonal appearance, and treating customers with respect. Once ator assault statistics and trends at the agency. The instructor a physical assault is imminent or has started, the operator is discusses the different types of assaults--verbal, physical, and instructed to: sexual--and the three steps to managing the situation--recog- nition, understanding, and acting. In recognition, operators are Call control; taught to use all of their faculties--including sight, hearing, Open both doors; smell, and past experiences--and to take behavior, appear- Release seat belt; ance, language/tone of voice, groups, and location/time of day Not get out of seat unless moving to a point of safety; and into consideration to recognize potential conflict situations. In Not leave the bus unless moving to a point of safety. understanding, the operator is instructed on Calgary Transit's policies and procedures, the legal definition of an assault, and what the options are in specific situations and what steps can Winnipeg Transit, Manitoba, Canada be taken before, during, and after a conflict to avoid an assault. Each operator is required to carry Calgary Transit's "Rules and Winnipeg Transit provides a 1-day course on self-defense. Procedures Manual" at all times while on the job. In particular, The course adopted the "Out of the Blue" training that was understanding the following rules from the manual, believed to be important in minimizing customer disputes, is achieved during the course: Rule 806: operators shall not pursue fare disagreements with a customer to the point of confrontation and where personal safety may be jeopardized. Rule 714: when requesting customers to comply with Calgary Transit rules and policies, operators must be respectful and civil. If the customer fails to comply with the request, the operator shall not pursue the matter if doing so will jeopardize personal safety. Rule 101: operators must determine a safe course of action by using common sense and good judgment. Rule 403: operators shall not insist on the enforcement of rules to the point of conflict or get off the bus to pursue anyone for the purpose of a confrontation. FIGURE 29 Calgary Transit's Out of the Blue self-defense The section of the course on acting includes passenger training. (Courtesy: City of Calgary 2005 Out of the Blue interaction techniques shown in Figures 28 and 29, specific presentation.)