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OCR for page 78
78 GLOSSARY Glossary definitions are primarily derived from Transit Safety Detection--The identification and validation of potential & Security Statistics & Analysis 2003 Annual Report; threat or attack that is communicated to an appropriate National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP--July 2006) authority that can act. General detection activities include or the National Response Plan (NRP--Dec. 2004) intelligence gathering, analysis of surveillance activities, and trend analysis of law enforcement reporting. For spe- All Hazards--An approach for prevention, protection, pre- cific assets, examples include intrusion-detection systems, paredness, response, and recovery that addresses a full alarms, surveillance, and employee security awareness range of threats and hazards, including domestic terrorist programs. attacks, natural and man-made disasters, accidental dis- Deterrence--An activity, procedure, or physical barrier that ruptions, and other emergencies. reduces the likelihood of an incident, attack, or criminal Arson--The unlawful and intentional damaging, or attempt activity. to damage, any real or personal property by fire or incen- Directly Operated--Transportation service provided directly diary device. by a transit agency, using their employees to supply the Assault, Aggravated--An unlawful attack by one person upon necessary labor to operate the revenue vehicles. This another wherein the offender: includes instances in which an agency's employees provide uses a weapon in a threatening manner, or purchased transportation services to the agency through a the victim suffers obvious severe or aggravated bodily contractual agreement. injury. Emergency Incident--An incident in which emergency response is required; specifically, an imminent threat to Assault, Other--An unlawful attack or attempt by one per- human life. son upon another in which no weapon is used or that does Employee--An individual who is compensated by the tran- not result in serious or aggravated injury to the victim. sit agency. Attack or Active Incident--An actual emergency, which might Evacuation--A condition requiring all passengers and employ- include a terrorist attack, accident, or natural disaster. ees to depart a transit vehicle and enter onto the transit right- Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) System--The core bus of-way or roadway under emergency circumstances. AVL system is defined as the central software used by dis- Fare Evasion--The unlawful use of transit facilities by rid- patchers for operations management that periodically ing without paying the applicable fare. receives real-time updates on fleet vehicle locations and typically have a Global Positioning System receiver and Fatality--A transit-caused death confirmed within 30 days of mobile data communications capability. They may also a transit incident, which occurs under the collision, derail- have other features, such as schedule adherence monitor- ment, fire, evacuation, security incident, vehicle leaving ing, onboard mobile data terminals, managed voice com- the roadway, or not otherwise classified categories. munications, text messaging, next-stop announcements, Fire--Uncontrolled combustion made evident by flame and/or and automatic passenger counting and real-time passenger smoke that requires suppression by equipment or personnel. information using dynamic message signs at selected stops Forcible Rape--The carnal knowledge of a person forcibly (TCRP Synthesis 73, p. 1). and/or against that person's will. This includes assault to CompStat (COMParative STATistics)--CompStat is a crime rape or attempt to rape. management tool that uses crime mapping technology and FTA Urbanized Area Formula Program Funds--Financial analysis to identify areas of potential incidents and hot assistance from Section 5307 of the Federal Transit Act. spots, and assesses the effectiveness of various policing This program makes federal resources available for capi- measures. tal projects and to finance the planning and improvement Concealed Carry--Carrying a firearm hidden on one's person. costs of equipment, facilities and associated capital main- Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)-- tenance items for use in mass transportation. The program CPTED is a method of SCP by which the transit envi- also allows funds for operating assistance in urbanized ronment discourages offenders from making the choice to areas of less than 200,000 population. commit a crime by increasing the risks and required efforts. Graduated Security Response--A security response that There are many CPTED measures; they include bright increases in a modular or continuous fashion as the defined lighting, unobstructed sightlines, and natural and formal threat level increases in severity; protective measures surveillance. implemented at lower threat levels build to the higher Criminal Activity--An activity that violates the law. threat level protective measures in a cumulative fashion. Derailment/Bus Going Off Road--A non-collision incident High Visibility Patrols--High visibility patrols are made in which either one or more wheels of a transit vehicle highly visible through the saturation of specific locations unintentionally leaves the rails, a bus leaves the roadway, with multiple specially uniformed officers and the use of or there is a rollover. visible tactical vests.

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79 Hijacking--Seizing control of a transit vehicle by force. Mode--A system for carrying transit passengers described by Homicide--The killing of one or more human beings by specific right-of-way, technology, and operational features. another, including the following: Motor Vehicle Theft--The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle that Murder and non-negligent manslaughter--the willful runs on the surface of land and not on rails. (non-negligent) killing of one or more human beings by National Transit Database--The system through which the another. FTA collects uniform data needed by the secretary of Negligent manslaughter--the killing of another person transportation to administer department programs. or persons through gross negligence. Not Otherwise Classified (Personal Casualty)--A major or Incident--Major (episodic): Existence of one or more of the non-major incident in which person(s) are injured or die in following: transit-related operations, but not as a result of a collision, derailment/vehicle leaving roadway, evacuation, or fire. A fatality other than a suicide; These incidents can include the following: Injuries requiring immediate medical attention away from the scene for two or more persons; Injuries or fatalities that occur in slips, trips, or falls on Property damage equal to or exceeding $25,000; stairs, escalators, elevators, passageways, platforms, or An evacuation owing to life safety reasons; transit right-of-ways; A collision at a grade crossing resulting in at least one Injuries or fatalities that occur in sudden braking or unex- injury requiring immediate medical attention away pected swerving on transit vehicles; and from the scene or property damage equal to or exceed- Injuries or fatalities that occur in slips, falls, door clos- ing $7,500; ings, or lifts while getting on or off a transit vehicle. A mainline derailment; Non-Arson Fires--An incident involving uncontrolled com- A collision with person(s) on a rail right-of-way resulting bustion manifested by flame or smoke resulting in evi- in injuries that require immediate medical attention away dence of charring, melting, or other evidence of ignition of from the scene for one or more persons; or transit property. These are reported as in-station, on right A collision between a rail transit vehicle and another of way or other, or in vehicle. rail transit vehicle or a transit non-revenue vehicle Non-Lethal Weapons--These are explicitly designed and pri- resulting in injuries that require immediate medical marily used to incapacitate personnel and materiel while attention away from the scene for one or more persons. minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment. Non-major (summary): Incidents not already reported on Non-Violent Civil Disturbance--Non-violent public demon- the Major Incident Reporting form (S&S-40). Existence of strations that may or may not be disruptive. one or more of the following conditions: Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)--OC is obtained from chili pep- Injuries requiring immediate medical attention away from pers that have been dried and ground into a fine powder. the scene for one person; When mixed with an emulsifier, it may be sprayed from a Property damage equal to or exceeding $7,500 (less variety of dispensers and used as an irritant to control vio- than $25,000); and lent people or vicious animals and/or to restore and main- All non-arson fires not qualifying as major incidents. tain order. Open Carry--Carrying a firearm in public in plain sight. Injury--Any physical damage or harm to persons as a result Other--An individual who is neither a transit passenger, of an incident that requires immediate medical attention transit facility occupant, employee/other worker at a tran- away from the scene. sit agency, nor a trespasser. Kubotan--A small stick that can be used as a self-defense Other Assault--An unlawful attack or attempt by one person tool. The principal areas for attacks in self-defense include upon another where no weapon is used or which does not bony, fleshy, and nerve targets. result in serious or aggravated injury to the victim. Larceny/Theft--The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or Passenger--A person who is on board, boarding, or alighting riding away of property from the possession or constructive from a transit vehicle for the purpose of traveling without possession of another person. This includes pocket picking, participating in the operation of the vehicle. purse snatching, shoplifting, thefts from motor vehicles, Passenger Miles--The cumulative sum of distances ridden thefts of motor vehicle parts and accessories, theft of bicy- by each passenger. cles, theft from buildings, theft from coin-operated devices Pepper Gel--Pepper gel consists of oleoresin capsicum or or machines, and all other theft not specifically classified. OC, which is derived from the cayenne pepper plant. Less-Lethal or Less-Than-Lethal Weapons--Weapons Pepper Spray--Pepper spray consists of oleoresin capsicum designed to temporarily disable or stop individuals with- or OC, which is derived from the cayenne pepper plant. out killing them. Population Density--Population divided by the area for Mitigation--Activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks which the population is measured. In the NTD, the number to persons or property or to lessen the actual or potential of people is the most recent census urbanized area popula- effects or consequences of an incident. tion divided by the square miles of that urbanized area.

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80 Property Damage--The dollar amount required to repair or of the traveling public and transit workers. The use is replace all vehicles (transit and nontransit) and all property/ intended to restrict the material from automatic Freedom facilities (track, signals, and buildings) damaged during an of Information Act disclosure. incident, to a state equivalent to that which existed before Situational Crime Prevention--The theoretical basis is the incident. rational choice. The offender decides to commit a crime Protective Measures--Planned activities that reduce vulnera- based on risks, efforts, and rewards. Situational crime bility, deny an adversary opportunity, or increase response prevention attempts to make the risks and efforts greater capability during a period of heightened alert. than the rewards. Purchased Transportation--Transportation service provided Taser--Tasers fire electrified darts to immobilize an individ- to a public transit agency or governmental unit from a pub- ual by causing neuromuscular incapacitation. lic or private transportation provider based on a written Terrorist Attack--An intentional act of violence with intent contract. The provider is obligated in advance to operate to inflict significant damage to property, inflict casualties, public transportation services for a public transit agency or and produce panic and fear. governmental unit for a specific monetary consideration, Threat--A potential action or situation that may cause harm using its own employees to operate revenue vehicles. Pur- to people or property. chased transportation does not include franchising, licensing Transit Facility Occupant--A person who is inside the pub- operations, management services, cooperative agreements, lic passenger area of a transit revenue facility. Employ- or private conventional bus service. ees, other workers, or trespassers are not transit facility Recovery--Development, coordination, and execution of occupants. service- and site-restoration plans for affected areas and Trespass--To unlawfully enter land, a dwelling, or other real operations. property. Response--Activities that address the short-term, direct effects Unlinked Passenger Trips--The number of passengers who of an incident, including immediate actions to save lives, board public transportation vehicles. Passengers are protect property, and meet basic human needs. counted each time they board vehicles no matter how Risk--A measure of potential harm that encompasses threat, many vehicles they use to travel from their origin to their vulnerability, and consequence. destination. Robbery--The taking or attempting to take anything of value Vandalism--The willful or malicious destruction, injury, dis- under confrontational circumstances from the care, custody, figurement, or defacement of any public or private property, or control of another person by force, threat of force, or vio- real or personal, without consent of the owner or person lence and/or by putting the victim in fear of immediate having custody or control by cutting, tearing, breaking, harm. The use or threat of force includes firearms, knives or marking, painting, drawing, covering with filth, or any other cutting instruments, other dangerous weapons (clubs, acid, such means as may be specified by local law. explosives), and strong arm techniques (hands, fists, feet). Vehicle Miles--The total number of miles traveled by tran- Sabotage--Sabotage or tampering with transit facilities' sit vehicles. Commuter rail, heavy rail, and light rail report assets may be a means to achieve any of the above events, individual car miles rather than train miles for vehicle such as starting a fire or spreading an airborne chemical miles. agent, or it may be a stand-alone act, such as tampering Vehicles Operated in Annual Maximum Service--The num- with track to induce derailment. ber of revenue vehicles operated to meet the annual maxi- Security Vulnerability/Risk Assessment--A systematic mum service requirement. assessment approach for security vulnerability/risk and Vulnerability--A weakness in the design, implementation, includes threat and vulnerability analysis. or operation of an asset, system, or network that can be Sensitive Security Information--Any information or records exploited by an adversary, or disrupted by a natural hazard the disclosure of which may compromise safety or security or technological failure.