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43 Reducing loading and unloading delays; Five Carrier A Maximizing travel on Interstates and other freeways; Innovative Operational Practices Maximizing day driving to avoid driver fatigue; Commercial software for PM scheduling and records Avoiding adverse weather and slick roads; Computerized maps and route directions provided to Use of onboard computers; and drivers for trips Use of mobile communication systems. Division operational managers also responsible for safety Speed-limits trucks to 65 mph and monitors fuel use Carrier B takes advantage of its size and also employs "Aggressive" enforcement of detention fees for delays brokers to minimize its empty backhaul (deadhead) rate. In 2009, the company attained a 10% deadhead rate, which the SM considered to be a major accomplishment. A realistic goal for more companies is 15% to 20%, in the SM's view. driver hours and compliance, which in turn improves plan- ning and dispatching. Trucks are equipped with a variety of advanced equip- ment, including EOBRs, fuel consumption monitoring, satel- Carrier A speed-limits its trucks to 65 mph and tracks lite tracking, and mobile communications. EOBRs reduce driver and trip fuel economy. Lowering speeds and monitor- the "guess work" in HOS compliance monitoring and sched- ing fuel consumption has increased its average fuel economy ule planning. The SM estimated the daily driver time savings from 5 to 7 mpg. This is primarily an economy initiative, but from EOBR use to be 30 min--time that can translate into it also has safety benefits. Similarly, the company's trucks more rest and safer travel. Fuel economy monitoring pro- have automatic tire pressure monitoring and inflation. The duces direct cost savings and also reveals driver habits and main motivation is fuel savings, but it reduces tire wear and degree of compliance with company guidelines. associated tire failures. The company's website advertises that many dedicated To reduce loading and unloading delays, the company nego- routes are available for experienced company drivers. These tiates an agreement with each shipper and receiver regard- are run by a separate division of the company. For drivers, the ing acceptable load and unload times. Typically, on-schedule advantages of dedicated runs include a stable income and pre- trucks must be turned around within 2 hours of their arrival at dictable home times. Dedicated routes also promote safety the customer yard. Detention fees are charged for delays of through workrest schedule regularity and through driver more than 2 hours, with the money going directly to contract familiarity with roadways and traffic patterns. Team driving drivers. Carrier A's safety director believed that "aggressive" is also supported within the company, both for its more enforcement of these agreements was essential for reducing efficient use of equipment and for its acknowledged safety excessive delays and their negative safety consequences. advantages. CASE STUDY B: LARGE TRUCKLOAD CARRIER CASE STUDY C: LARGE TRUCKLOAD CARRIER Carrier B is a large refrigerated trucking company, hauling Carrier C is a large, diversified carrier with primarily truckload temperature-sensitive freight such as fresh produce, meat, operations but also with intermodal and logistics services. The dairy products, beverages, and chemicals. The company has company's truckload business is itself diverse, including long- national operations of several types. The SM respondent and haul, regional, expedited, dedicated, and bulk operations. The interviewee worked in the company's truckload operation. In SM interviewee is a corporate senior vice president who over- addition to various specific risk avoidance practices, Carrier sees safety, security, and driver training. The interviewee is B employs a comprehensive safety management system in its active in national trucking and safety organizations and in operations. This analytic system, provided under contract by 2010 was awarded a Distinguished Safety Leadership Award a safety consulting firm, tracks about "3,000 data points" relating to drivers, equipment, locations, and various other operational risk factors. For example, the system looks at each freight "lane" (standard route; e.g., Chicago to New Five Carrier B York) to assess its efficiency and safety relative to other Innovative Operational Practices lanes. Subpar performance by any company division or ter- Quantitative safety management system evaluates multi- minal is diagnosed quantitatively and brought to manage- ple risk factors and exposures. ment's attention. Analysis of company truck crash rate by Uses brokers and other methods to reduce deadhead rate time-of-day has indicated a 15% to 20% higher rate during to 10% the early morning hours between 2:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. EOBR use estimated to save drivers 30 min per day Teams used when possible for both efficiency and safety In the project survey, the SM rated the following opera- Dedicated routes available to some drivers tional practices as having the greatest benefits to safety: