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47 window access are blocked by deliveries. The software opti- mizes outbound delivery times and driving distances, but the Five Carrier G Carrier G private fleet does not do backhauls. "Empty" trailers Innovative Operational Practices contain considerable packing material, further reducing the Software for PM scheduling and records practicality of backhauls. Routes and deliveries optimized in relation to road, traf- fic, and delivery location factors Carrier G's division fleets are partially maintained by its Onboard computers with monitoring of rapid decelera- own employees and partially by its truck leasing firm. Both tions with analysis of regional rates are aided by commercial PM software. Carrier G's trucks are Truck speed-limiting with monitoring of top speeds and equipped with onboard computers that capture and record fuel usage rapid decelerations and other indicators of driver risk. Rapid Analysis of crash factors and resulting yard redesigns decelerations (e.g., a 7-mph drop in 1 s or less) usually indi- cate driver tailgating or other at-risk behavior. Because traf- fic density and other driving conditions vary so much across the country, different regional divisions may have tenfold CASE STUDY H: LARGE UTILITY PRIVATE FLEET differences in average frequencies of rapid decelerations. A goal is established for each distribution center, and indi- Carrier H is a large utility with a private fleet of trucks. These vidual drivers are evaluated in relation to other drivers in their trucks deliver equipment items, both very large and small, division. Across the entire fleet, a typical goal for drivers to company locations. Most tractors are equipped with an would be a rate of one event per 900 miles. Trucks are also onboard hydraulic "Knuckle Boom" crane, which is used to equipped with electronic logs, which permit rapid identifica- unload equipment from the trailer and to load used equip- tion of violations and follow-up inquiries. Sometimes viola- ment for return trips. Most backhauls are loaded with equip- tions are "technical" rather than substantial; for example, a ment needing repair or to be scrapped. The interviewee has driver caught in a traffic jam at the end of a trip may have decades of experience with the company, and functions as a to terminate his or her trip as soon as possible, but still go senior safety consultant and advisor with company-wide, over on driving time. Such minor violations do not result in national responsibilities. enforcement consequences, because they are infrequent and explainable. Carrier H has very stable and predictable delivery opera- tions. Its distribution center and terminal locations are estab- Carrier G's trucks are both speed limited and speed mon- lished and rarely change. Its drivers and trucks deliver the itored. Trucks are limited to 63 mph when under power. same cargo items to multiple terminals, which are similar in Because trucks going downhill can accelerate to higher size and operations. Drivers know their routes and the vagaries rolling speeds, they are monitored for any speeds greater than of traffic patterns along the way. Almost all daily trips begin 68 mph. These measures control speeds and also improve and end within 12 hours at the equipment distribution center. fuel economy. Individual driver fuel economy also is moni- Employee drivers work a 4-day week. Thus, many issues con- tored. These combined measures have allowed Carrier G to fronting other fleets are not concerns to Carrier H. These improve its fuel economy by more than 1 mpg. include empty backhauls, loading and unloading delays, HOS compliance challenges, route optimization, and navigation. Carrier G has analyzed its crashes in terms of location, The regularity of delivery routes, locations, and operations vehicle movements, and other risk factors. Few of its contributes greatly to driving safety. Most crashes involve crashes occur on Interstates or other freeways. Most actu- trucks' close interactions with other traffic, as in a "pinch" sce- ally occur at store locations, and many of these involve nario when light vehicles cut in front of trucks. truck backing maneuvers. Many also occur within closed distribution center yards. Carrier G's analyses of yard crashes Carrier H has its own maintenance facilities but also out- has led to changes in yard design (e.g., parking lines, other sources maintenance. It uses commercial maintenance man- markers, and signs) resulting in a 44% reduction in these agement software to manage PM schedules, parts inventory, crashes. fuel and tire usage, and other maintenance schedules and records. On the survey form and in the interview, the SM empha- sized the many roadway factors affecting crash risk. These Carrier H emphasizes trip planning and preparation. The include divided versus undivided roadways, traffic, work supervisor of the prior shift prepares a daily "run sheet" for zones, loading dock and yard design, and, of course, traf- each driver that specifies delivery points and includes paper- fic density. With regard to work zones, it was pointed out work for each delivery. Because drivers are familiar with that some highway work projects appear to result in lane their routes, they are granted the flexibility to modify them closures of unnecessarily long durations. Such extended when needed, based on traffic conditions or other exigencies. closures elevate crash risks because of their constricted Supervisors closely monitor both pre- and post-trip vehicle driving space. inspections, which include the truck, trailer, and the onboard