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5 proximity to other vehicles, traffic signals, crossing traffic, highway interchange bottlenecks cause over a million and geometric constrictions such as narrow lanes, curves, and truck-hours of delay per year, costing $19 billion overall. ramps. All of these road situations increase risk. Most of these Delays and idling trucks at bottlenecks and chokepoints especially elevate the risk of crashes with other vehicles, which exacerbate negative air quality impacts on the surround- constitute about 80% of large-truck fatal and injury crashes ing communities. (FMCSA Analysis Division 2010). In contrast, fast travel usually means smooth and efficient flow. It follows that Unlocking Freight did not address safety concerns related to efforts to make commercial vehicle travel more efficient by freight congestion. The speed paradox described previously, avoiding potential delays are also likely to make that travel along with other evidence to be presented in this report, tes- safer. This is a major theme of this report. tify to the adverse safety impacts of traffic congestion and other sources of travel inefficiency. National Significance and Future Trends PROJECT OBJECTIVES, METHODS, AND SCOPE This synthesis report focuses on carrier practices and the impacts of these practices measured from within carriers. This report on Safety Effects of Carrier Efficiencies synthe- Worth noting, however, is the aggregate national impact of sizes current information on carrier operational efficiencies, carrier transport efficiencies. AASHTO (2010) recently pub- which may also provide safety benefits by decreasing expo- lished a report on freight mobility concerns in the present and, sure to risk. It provides information that may assist motor especially, for the future. The following excerpt from this carriers in deploying their trucks and buses in ways that min- Unlocking Freight report highlights the current and future imize crash risk. The project has involved the following national significance of CMV transport efficiency: information-gathering activities: By 2020, the U.S. trucking industry will move three bil- Research evidence and product review: lion more tons of freight than we haul today. To meet Research literature and trade press; this demand, the industry will put another 1.8 million Crash and naturalistic driving statistics; and trucks on the road. Vendor products and services. In 20 years, for every two trucks now on the road, there Surveys: will be an additional one . . . carrying the expected Carrier safety-manager questionnaire; and Other-expert (e.g., research, government, trade asso- growth in food deliveries, goods, and manufacturing ciation) questionnaire. equipment. Carrier safety-manager interviews (for case studies). In 40 years, overall freight demand will double, from 15 billion tons today to 30 billion tons by 2050. Freight The survey and interview methodologies are described carried by trucks will increase 41 percent . . . The num- in chapters focusing on those efforts. The research literature ber of trucks on the road compared with today will and vendor product review methodology is described here. also double. Searches were done using websites, academic databases, Between 1980 and 2006, traffic on the Interstate Highway books, trade press publications, and articles. The following System increased by 150%, whereas Interstate capacity databases were used to conduct the reviews: increased by only 15%. On average, 10,500 trucks a day travel some segments Transportation Research Information Database (TRID): of the Interstate Highway System. By 2035, this will Offers the largest online bibliographic database of trans- increase to 22,700 trucks for these portions of the portation research, with more than 650,000 records of Interstate, with the most heavily used segments seeing published research. upwards of 50,000 trucks a day. Business Source Premier: Features the full texts of more The amount of traffic experiencing congested condi- than 2,200 journals. Full texts from as early as 1965 are tions at peak hours in the nation's most urban areas on provided, and searchable cited references, from as early the Interstate System [has] doubled from 32 percent to as 1998. over 67 percent. Lexis Nexis: Provides access to a multitude of popu- Major highway bottlenecks at urban Interstate inter- lar articles as well as some scholarly works. There is changes cause tens of thousands of hours of delay each also access to congressional records, court decisions, day, week, and year for truckers, business travelers, and government statistical reports. and commuters. Strings of bottlenecks are emerging EconLit: From the American Economic Association's along regional and transcontinental freight routes, electronic database, covers economic literature, with creating corridors of congestion instead of corridors more than 735,000 records. of commerce. Estimates of the truck hours of delay for the worst These databases were searched using a variety of topic- freight-truck bottlenecks show that each of the top 10 related keywords and phrases, often in combinations to

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6 improve focus. Keywords included: trucking, safety, crash safety benefits or other effects. Chapter two presents evidence risk avoidance, motor transport efficiency, truck routing and product information relating to strategies potentially affect- software, preventive maintenance, traffic, road risk, safety ing efficiency and safety. Chapter three describes the methods strategies, construction, work zones, reversing safety, and and results of the project surveys. Chapter four presents several efficiency benefits. carrier case studies. Chapter five summarizes findings regard- ing current and emerging carrier practices, as well as needs and The remaining chapters of this report present this informa- opportunities for further research. An appendix to the report tion and draw conclusions regarding carrier efficiencies with provides the project survey forms.