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65 MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY MANAGER/HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGER SURVEY Synthesis Study on Safety Effects of Carrier Efficiencies Transportation Research Board CTBSSP Study MC-22 This study looks at ways that carrier efficiencies and other operational practices might affect safety, positively or negatively. Partic- ipation in this survey is voluntary. All respondent answers will be treated as confidential and aggregated with other responses in the reporting. No survey responses will be attributed to an individual. Survey respondents will receive a link to the synthesis report when it is published. Thanks for your participation and support! (1) Factors Affecting Safety and Crash Risk: Consider the entire fleet of North American commercial vehicles (trucks and buses). Across all these drivers and vehicles, which factors have the greatest association with crash risk? Pick up to two (2) of the factors below which, in your opinion, have the greatest association with crash risk. Circle the letter(s). (a) Enduring/long-term driver traits; e.g., age, physical abilities, medical conditions, personality, behavioral history. (b) Temporary driver states; e.g., moods, daily circadian rhythms, effects of recent sleep, effects of recent food and fluids, effects of environmental conditions in cab, etc. (c) Vehicle characteristics (e.g., configuration, safety equipment, load) and mechanical condition (e.g., brakes, tires). (d) Roadway characteristics and traffic conditions; e.g., undivided versus divided highways, construction zones, traffic density, speed limits, lane restrictions, etc. (e) Weather and roadway surface conditions; e.g., wet versus dry, road surface friction, visibility, wind, etc. (2) In your opinion, which one of the above has the least association with crash risk? Write letter here: _______. Driving Situations and Operational Practices Possibly Affecting Fleet Safety The following are driving situations or carrier operational practices which may reduce, not affect, or improve fleet safety. Assign each situation or practice a negative value if it decreases safety, zero if it does not affect safety, or a positive value if it improves safety. Choose one number for each. Consecutive items may represent alternative or even opposing safety strategies. No Reduces Fleet Improves Opinion/ Driving Situation/Operational Practice Safety No Effect on Safety Fleet Safety Not Sure (3) Reduce empty backhauls (deadheads) -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (4) Reduce loading/unloading delays -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (5) Increase routing efficiency using GPS -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X navigation aids and/or truck routing software (6) Maximize travel on Interstates and -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X other freeways (7) Maximize travel on low-speed roads (e.g., two-lane local roads) -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (8) Maximize day driving to avoid driver -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X fatigue and other nighttime risks (9) Maximize night driving to avoid daytime traffic -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (10) Avoid urban rush hours and other heavy -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X traffic situations (11) Avoid adverse weather and slick roads -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (12) Avoid construction zones -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (13) Assign familiar routes to drivers when possible -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (14) Use fewer, larger trucks (e.g., multi-trailer trucks) -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X when possible (15) Use more, smaller trucks (e.g., single-unit trucks) -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X when possible (16) Use onboard computers -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (17) Use mobile communication systems -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X

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66 Which Operational Practices and Tools Do You Regularly Use? For each of the operational practices below, please indicate yes or no whether your organization uses the practice. If yes, rate its overall safety effectiveness using the 15 scale provided. Circle your answer. If no, leave the ratings blank. If "Yes," please rate safety effectiveness: Do you Highly Not Sure/ Highly Carrier Practices: regularly use? Ineffective Ineffective Neutral Effective Effective (18) Preventive maintenance schedule Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 and record for each vehicle (19) Preventive maintenance software Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 or spreadsheets (20) Use brokers or other services to Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 reduce empty backhauls (deadheads) (21) Charge extra fees to customers for Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 excessive loading/unloading delays. (22) Require drivers to complete a trip Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 plan prior to trip. (23) Use general GPS navigation/routing Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 systems or services (24) Use truck-specific navigation/routing Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 systems or services (25) Provide "EZ Pass" transponder Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 and/or reimbursement of toll charges to drivers/OOs (26) Use higher capacity vehicles Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 (e.g., twin trailers, LCVs) when possible (27) Use onboard computers Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 (28) Use mobile communications Yes No 1 2 3 4 5 (29) What is the relationship between carrier efficiency and safety? Circle the letter of the statement you most agree with. (a) Highly efficient carriers tend also to be more safe than other carriers. (b) Carrier efficiency and carrier safety are largely unrelated to each other. (c) Highly efficient carriers tend to be less safe than other carriers. (d) Don't know/no general opinion. (30) In your fleet, what operational efficiency or other practice contributes most to fleet safety? (31) Other comments regarding carrier efficiencies or other practices affecting fleet safety (positively or negatively): Information about You and Your Fleet (32) Number of years you have been a carrier Safety Manager or Human Resource Manager: ___________ (33) Your total years' experience in commercial truck/bus operations: _____________ (34) Approximate number of power units currently in your organizations' fleet: _________ (35) Circle the operation type that best characterizes your fleet (a) For hire: long haul/truckload (b) For hire: long-haul/less-than-truckload (LTL) (c) For hire: local/short haul (most trips <100 miles) (d) Private industry: long haul (e) Private: local/short haul (most trips <100 miles) (f ) Passenger carrier: scheduled service (g) Passenger carrier: charter (h) Other: ____________________________ (36) Provide your e-mail address if you would like to receive pdfs of the project report and presentation in early 2011. This information will be used for no other purpose. ___________________________________________________________ Thank you for completing this survey! [Questions or additional comments? E-mail the project manager at tbsafety@aol.com]