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67 EXPERT SURVEY [Administered Online via "Survey Gizmo"] Synthesis Study on Safety Effects of Carrier Efficiencies Transportation Research Board CTBSSP Study MC-22 Dear Motor Carrier Safety Expert, The Transportation Research Board (TRB) is conducting synthesis study MC-22 on Safety Effects of Carrier Efficiencies. This is being done for the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP). CTBSSP is sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and administered by TRB. This project seeks to explore driving conditions relevant to safety and ways that truck and bus fleets can change their operational practices to reduce crash exposures and risk. In particular, the study looks at potential safety effects (good or bad) of carrier efficiencies. This survey is being sent to [being sent to] safety professionals who are knowledgeable on this topic but who are not currently motor carrier safety managers. A separate survey form has been developed for that respondent group. If you are currently a carrier safety manager and wish to take the survey, please contact us. Please comp[l]ete and submit this survey by August 31, 2010. We estimate that it should take no more than 20 minutes to complete. If you have any questions, please contact our principal investigator, Dr. Ron Knipling at firstname.lastname@example.org. Any supporting materials can be sent directly to Dr. Knipling. Participation in the survey is voluntary. All answers provided by survey respondents will be treated as confidential and aggregated with other responses in the reporting. No survey comments or other responses will be attributed to an individual. Survey respondents will receive a link to the synthesis report when it is published. QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS: (1) To view and print the entire questionnaire, click on this link and print using "Control p." (2) To save your partial answers, click on the "Save and Continue Later" link in the upper right corner of your screen. A link to the partial survey will be e-mailed to you. (3) To view and print your answers before submitting the survey, click forward to the page following the last question (Question 22). Print using "control p." (4) To submit the survey, click on "Submit" on the last page. Thanks for your help! This study looks at ways that carrier efficiencies and other operational practices might affect safety, positively or negatively. Par- ticipation in this survey is voluntary. All respondent answers will be treated as confidential and aggregated with other responses in the reporting. No survey responses will be attributed to an individual. Survey respondents will receive a link to the synthesis report when it is published. Thanks for your participation and support! (1) Factors Affecting Safety and Crash Risk: Consider the entire fleet of North American commercial vehicles (trucks and buses). Across all these drivers and vehicles, which factors have the greatest association with crash risk? Pick up to two (2) of the factors below which, in your opinion, have the greatest association with crash risk. Circle the letter(s). (a) Enduring/long-term driver traits; e.g., age, physical abilities, medical conditions, personality, behavioral history. (b) Temporary driver states; e.g., moods, daily circadian rhythms, effects of recent sleep, effects of recent food and fluids, effects of environmental conditions in cab, etc. (c) Vehicle characteristics (e.g., configuration, safety equipment, load) and mechanical condition (e.g., brakes, tires). (d) Roadway characteristics and traffic conditions; e.g., undivided versus divided highways, construction zones, traffic density, speed limits, lane restrictions, etc. (e) Weather and roadway surface conditions; e.g., wet versus dry, road surface friction, visibility, wind, etc. (2) In your opinion, which one of the above has the least association with crash risk? [Choices re-presented.].
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68 Driving Situations and Operational Practices Possibly Affecting Fleet Safety The following are driving situations or carrier operational practices which may reduce, not affect, or improve fleet safety. Assign each situation or practice a negative value if it decreases safety, zero if it does not affect safety, or a positive value if it improves safety. Choose one number for each. Consecutive items may represent alternative or even opposing safety strategies. Reduces Fleet No Effect Improves No Opinion/ Driving Situation/Operational Practice Safety on Safety Fleet Safety Not Sure (3) Perform regular vehicle preventive maintenance -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (4) Use brokers and other services to reduce empty -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X backhauls (deadheads) (5) Reduce loading/unloading delays -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (6) Increase routing efficiency using GPS navigation -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X aids and/or truck routing software (7) Maximize travel on Interstates and other freeways -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (8) Maximize travel on low-speed roads (e.g., two-lane -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X local roads) (9) Maximize day driving to avoid driver fatigue and -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X other nighttime risks (10) Maximize night driving to avoid daytime traffic -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (11) Avoid urban rush hours and other heavy -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X traffic situations (12) Avoid adverse weather and slick roads -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (13) Avoid construction zones -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (14) Assign familiar routes to drivers when possible -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (15) Use fewer, larger trucks (e.g., multi-trailer trucks) -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X when possible (16) Use more, smaller trucks (e.g., single-unit trucks) -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X when possible (17) Use onboard computers -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (18) Use mobile communication systems -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 X (19) Additional comments regarding roadway/operational risk factors or carrier efficiencies affecting crash risk. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ (20) Choose the statement below you most agree with. (a) Highly efficient carriers tend also to be more safe than other carriers. (b) Carrier efficiency and carrier safety are largely unrelated to each other. (c) Highly efficient carriers tend to be less safe. (d) Don't know/no general opinion. Information about You (21) Approximately how many years of professional experience do you have relating to motor carrier safety? __________ (22) Please indicate all experience areas below for which you have one year or more experience relating to motor carrier safety: A. Government enforcement B. Other government (e.g. rulemaking, policy) C. Industry trade association D. Commercial driver E. Carrier safety director/manager F. Other carrier management position G. Safety consultant or vendor to fleets H. Accident investigation/data analysis I. Motor carrier safety research J. Journalist K. Driver trainer/training development L. Insurance for motor carriers M. Other: ____________________________ ["SUBMIT SURVEY" BOX]