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TCRP TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 153 Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations

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TCRP OVERSIGHT AND PROJECT TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2012 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* SELECTION COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS Keith Parker VIA Metropolitan Transit Chair: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Vice Chair: Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern MEMBERS Corporation, Norfolk, VA Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board John Bartosiewicz McDonald Transit Associates Michael Blaylock MEMBERS Jacksonville Transportation Authority J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Raul Bravo William A.V. Clark, Professor of Geography and Professor of Statistics, Department of Geography, Raul V. Bravo & Associates University of California, Los Angeles Terry Garcia Crews Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Metro Cincinnati James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Carolyn Flowers Charlotte Area Transit System Paula J. C. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Angela Iannuzziello Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Genivar Consultants Chris T. Hendrickson, Duquesne Light Professor of Engineering, Carnegie-Mellon University, John Inglish Pittsburgh, PA Utah Transit Authority Adib K. Kanafani, Professor of the Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley Paul Jablonski Gary P. LaGrange, President and CEO, Port of New Orleans, LA San Diego Metropolitan Transit System Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Sherry Little Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Spartan Solutions LLC Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Jonathan H. McDonald HNTB Corporation Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Gary W. McNeil Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD GO Transit Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Bradford Miller Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Frank Otero David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA PACO Technologies Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, Peter Rogoff West Lafayette, IN FTA Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Jeffrey Rosenberg Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute Amalgamated Transit Union Richard Sarles of Transportation Studies; and Acting Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Michael Scanlon Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI San Mateo County Transit District C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin James Stem United Transportation Union EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Gary Thomas Dallas Area Rapid Transit Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Frank Tobey Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT First Transit LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Matthew O. Tucker Interior, Washington, DC North County Transit District John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Phillip Washington Washington, DC Denver Regional Transit District John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Alice Wiggins-Tolbert Officials, Washington, DC Parsons Brinckerhoff Michael P. Huerta, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT EX OFFICIO MEMBERS David T. Matsuda, Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Michael P. Melaniphy, President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Michael P. Melaniphy Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT APTA Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Washington, DC TRB John C. Horsley Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department AASHTO of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Victor Mendez Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, FHWA U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT TDC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Louis Sanders Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT APTA Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, SECRETARY U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Christopher W. Jenks Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, TRB Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of December 2011. *Membership as of February 2012.

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRP REPORT 153 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Kathryn Coffel Jamie Parks Conor Semler Paul Ryus Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Portland, OR David Sampson AECOM Southport, CT Carol Kachadoorian Toole Design Group, LLC Washington, DC Herbert S. Levinson Wallingford, CT Joseph L. Schofer Wilmette, IL Subscriber Categories Public Transportation Planning and Forecasting Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

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TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TCRPREPORT 153 The nation's growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, Project B-38 and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current ISSN 1073-4872 systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand ISBN 978-0-309-21396-7 service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve Library of Congress Control Number 2012933415 these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to intro- duce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions COPYRIGHT INFORMATION to meet demands placed on it. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report published or copyrighted material used herein. 213--Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the Administration--now the Federal Transit Admin istration (FTA). A understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and success any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission ful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes from CRP. research and other technical activities in response to the needs of tran- sit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, NOTICE facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research administrative practices. Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- Governing Board of the National Research Council. posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. ating organizations: FTA, the National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research orga- Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. nization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Council, and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but they are considered essential to the object of the report. may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project state- ments (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide techni- cal guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research pro- grams since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without com pensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- Published reports of the nating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: tran- sit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- are available from: ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for Transportation Research Board workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry Washington, DC 20001 practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively and can be ordered through the Internet at address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 153 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Jeffrey L. Oser, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor TCRP PROJECT B-38 PANEL Field of Service Configuration Gary W. McNeil, GO Transit, Toronto, ON (Chair) Tunde Balvanyos, Parsons Brinckerhoff, San Diego, CA Jeffrey M. Dunning, Denver Regional Transportation District, Denver, CO Peter Fahrenwald, Regional Transportation Authority, Chicago, IL Susan Mary Harrington, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Meredith Highsmith, Texas Transportation Institute, Austin, TX David A. Lee, Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT Peter C. Martin, Wilbur Smith Associates, San Francisco, CA Douglas Moore, Central Ohio Transit Authority, Columbus, OH Daniel O'Connell, Metropolitan Transportation Authority-Metro-North Railroad, New York City, NY Jennifer Rephlo, Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, VA Thobias M. Sando, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL Peggy Schwartz, Transportation Action Partnership Inc., North Bethesda, MD Sarah Stott, Arlington County (VA), Arlington, VA Jarrett W. Stoltzfus, FTA Liaison Charlene Wilder, FTA Liaison Allen Greenberg, US DOT Liaison

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AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project B-38 by Kittelson & Associates, Inc. (prime contractor), assisted by AECOM, Toole Design Group, LLC; Herbert S. Levinson; and Dr. Joseph L. Schofer. Kathryn Coffel of Kittelson & Associates, Inc. was the principal investigator. Jamie Parks was instrumental throughout the project, leading much of the literature review, case study work, data collec- tion, and final report writing. He provided the sections on pedestrian and bicycle guidelines. Jamie Parks and Conor Semler developed the Station Access Planning Tool. Adam Vest assisted on several of the detailed case studies. Paul Ryus provided project oversight and final review of the guidebook. David Sampson of AECOM, supported by Christopher Henry and Guillermo Calves, assisted with the literature review, and conducted initial and detailed case studies. Carol Kachadoorian of Toole Design Group, LLC led the bicycle and pedestrian access literature review, initial case studies, and the detailed case study of the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. Herbert S. Levinson provided the auto- mobile access literature review, assistance on the detailed case studies, and the parking access guidelines, and pulled together the initial work into the final guidebook. Dr. Joseph L. Schofer developed the station access planning process and provided assistance with the detailed case studies. The project team thanks the numerous organizations and persons who participated in the project's outreach efforts, and particularly those who participated in the detailed case studies, and tested the Station Access Planning Tool.

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FOREWORD By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 153: Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations provides a process and spreadsheet-based tool for effectively planning for access to high capacity transit stations, including commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, bus rapid transit (BRT), and ferry. The report is accompanied by a CD that includes the station access planning spreadsheet tool that allows trade-off analyses among the various access modes (automobile, transit, bicycle, pedes- trian, and transit-oriented development) for different station types. The potential effectiveness of transit-oriented development opportunities to increase transit ridership is also assessed. This report and accompanying materials are intended to aid the many groups involved in planning, developing, and improving access to high capacity transit stations, including public transportation and highway agencies, planners, developers, and affected citizens. TCRP Report 153 addresses planning and design for access to high capacity transit sta- tions, including guidelines for arranging and integrating various station design elements. The report Provides a detailed eight-step planning process for effective station access planning; Provides elements of successful station access planning and specific lessons learned from research case studies to improve the effectiveness of the planning process; Sets forth a comprehensive station typology, provides information on station boarding and arrival volumes and access modes by station type, and provides guidance for estab- lishing policy for station mode of access; Presents techniques for estimated travel demand in terms of station boardings by mode and introduces the station access planning tool; Discusses station arrangement and design, and provides broad objectives and consider- ations for improving station access; Presents guidelines for enhancing pedestrian access to, from, and within station areas; Offers guidance relating to bicycle access and parking; Contains guidance for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of feeder transit access; Covers park-and-ride locations and arrangements to stations; and Discusses transit-oriented development and its relation to station access and parking. The appendices to TCRP Report 153 provide detailed additional information and are avail- able on the accompanying CD. Appendix A summarizes the stakeholder interviews and literature review that formed a basis for the guidance provided in this report; the full literature review is available as

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TCRP Web-Only Document 44: Literature Review for Providing Access to Public Trans- portation Stations; Appendix B provides an overview of existing analysis tools related to transit station access; Appendix C presents a spreadsheet-based station analysis tool for assessing various station access alternatives and instructions for use and provides detailed instructions on using the tool; Appendix D includes a summary of existing data related to transit access collected as part of the research project, including access mode share characteristics for select stations throughout the United States; and Appendix E contains the project's 11 case studies. The case studies illustrate the organi- zational elements for successful station access planning, and provide applications for elements of the eight-step planning process to specific stations at each of the eleven case study transit agencies. The appendices and planning tool are available at the TRB website at http://www.trb.org/ Main/Blurbs/166516.aspx.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Background 1 Key Issues 2 General Guidelines 3 Organization of the Guidelines 4 Future Research Needs 5 Chapter 2 Station Access Planning Tools and Process 5 Successful Station Access Planning 6 The Station Access Planning Process 19 Chapter 3 Insights from Transit Agencies 19 Elements of Successful Station Access Planning 25 Improving Station Access Planning 26 Insights from the Case Studies 33 Chapter 4Station Typology, Access Modes, and Access Policy Guidance 33 General Considerations 33 Station Typologies 35 Examples of Station Arrival Modes 43 Access Policy Guidelines 44 Chapter 5 Travel Demand Considerations 44 Review of Practice 46 Station Access Model 48 Effects of Improved Station Access 51 Estimating Ridership for New and Infill Stations 54 Chapter 6 General Station Access Guidelines 54 Background 56 Station Access Objectives 56 Additional Considerations 57 Overview of Options 58 Sequence of Access Design Chapters 59 Chapter 7 Pedestrian Access to Transit 59 Context 60 Interagency Coordination 60 Factors Affecting Pedestrian Access 61 Design Principles 66 Chapter 8 Bicycle Access to Transit 67 Interagency Coordination

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68 Factors Affecting Bicycle Access 69 Bicycle Access Improvements 77 Chapter 9 Transit Access 77 General Planning Guidelines 80 Access Objectives and Guidelines 85 Bus Characteristics 86 Bus Operating Practice and Terminal Design 89 Terminal Access and Arrangement 92 Chapter 10 Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride 92 Overview and Objectives 94 User and Usage Characteristics 98 Planning Guidelines 105 Traffic and Parking Management Guidelines 106 Facility Arrangement and Design 113 Operations and Maintenance 115 Chapter 11 TOD and Station Access 115 Issues and Opportunities 117 Development Types and Sizes 119 TOD--Where Does It Work? 120 General Guidelines 123 Comparisons of TOD and Park-and-Ride 128 Implications and Directions 130 References 133 List of Agency Abbreviations 134 Appendices A Through E Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.