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Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride 105 Exhibit 10-11. Minimum land costs for structured parking based on annual development and operating costs (2010 conditions). Minimum Land Cost (Dollars per sq. ft.) Number of Garage Levels A B C 2 $100 $94 $70 3 $82 $70 $52 5 $68 $59 $44 7 $64 $55 $42 Difference between Lot Garage and Annual Operating Costs per Space A $400 (ITE Data) B $190 (BARTD Data) Capital Cost Only (no adjustments for C $0 design and finance) Source: Computed Generally, the space supply should exceed the peak occupancy by about 10 percent and peak demand should not exceed 90 percent of the available space. Terminal or near terminal stations along heavy rail and light rail transit lines should provide about 25 percent more spaces, if space permits, than initially required to better prepare for untapped potential demand. Estimating demand for the number of park-and-ride spaces (and boarding passengers) at any given station can be done in several ways: Analogy with similar conditions within a given urban area or in other areas. Targeted surveys of residents within an influence area of a station. Most patrons come from within a few miles of a station. However, terminal rail rapid transit stations may attract riders from distances of up to about 20 miles to take advantage of faster overall travel times, and potentially lower fares and more frequent service. Catchment areas are usually elliptical with the greatest pull from the outbound side. Using observed relationships between the number of boardings and the number of park- and-riders. Generally there are between 0.4 and 0.6 parking spaces per boarding passenger at stations along rail transit lines in suburbs. Using the station access model described in Chapter 5. Typically, about 2 to 6 percent of all parking spaces should be allocated to short-term parking for passenger drop-off and pick-up (i.e., kiss-and-ride). Traffic and Parking Management Guidelines The following operations and management guidelines will prove useful in improving auto- mobile access to, from, and within park-and-ride facilities. Passenger Drop-offs and Pick-ups Passenger drop-offs and pick-ups should be located to avoid conflicts with bus, auto, and pedestrian movements in the station area. Locate drop-off areas and taxi stands as close as practical to the station entrance without interfering with feeder bus operations, which typically have higher priority.