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106 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Clearly mark zones for taxis and drop-off/pick-up activity. Locate drop-off and pick-up areas to improve safety and minimize congestion impacts. Drivers should be able to stop without impeding traffic flow or delaying transit vehicles. Provide space for ADA parkers. Pedestrian areas should be designed with enough space to accommodate passengers waiting to be picked up, with lighting, seating, and weather protection. It may be possible to combine bus and drop-off waiting areas, providing that automobiles do not delay buses. Optionally provide reserved space for midday riders. Guidelines for Various Users Parking should be located for different users in accord with each access mode's space requirements: Locate carpool and motorcycle parking closer to the station entrance than parking for other users. In garages, carpool and motorcycle parking should be located on the first or second floors. Reserved spaces for car sharing services should be located in high-profile locations, in areas that are closer to station entrances than most of the at-large parking spaces. No park-and-ride space should be located more than mile from the station entrance wherever possible. Design parking to be shared with other users, where appropriate. For example, residential or entertainment uses may be able to use station parking on evenings and weekends. Pedestrian pathways through parking facilities should be clearly indicated with sidewalks or surface markings. Design parking access and egress routes to minimize traffic impacts on the surrounding local transportation network. Facility Arrangement and Design The design of park-and-ride facilities should be keyed to the surrounding environment. Consideration should be given to neighborhood character, facility demand, distance from the city center, and the needs of motor vehicles, transit users, and pedestrians. Illustrative design guidelines are shown in Exhibit 10-12. General Considerations The parking space layout generally should be similar to that for other parking facilities. However, facilities must (1) accommodate transfers between automobiles and rapid transit; (2) provide short-term as well as long-term parking and passenger loading areas; and (3) handle most traffic in two short peak periods daily. The bus passenger loading area should be the focal point of pedestrian access. It should be located adjacent to or over the station platforms. There should be convenient, conflict- free pedestrian interchange to, from, and between bus stops, parking facilities, and the station entrance. Internal circulation patterns should separate bus transit, drop-off patrons, and park-and-ride users. Access Concepts and Geometry Access design and location are normally governed by topography, available site front- age, and the types and locations of surrounding roads and connecting transit services. They

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Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride 107 Exhibit 10-12. Design guidelines for park-and-ride facilities. Design Element Guidelines Distance from activity center served (minimum) 5-8 miles Maximum size Lot (typical) 900 1,200 spaces Garage (typical) 1,200 1,500 spaces Parking spaces per acre 125 135 Square feet per space 400 425 Location of bus loading area On-street or within lot Separate bus access Less than 350 spaces Optional More than 350 spaces Yes Maximum passenger accumulation/shelter 80 150 people Bus loading berths (typical) 1 to 4 Maximum desirable pedestrian walking distance 1,200 feet Kiss-and-ride spaces (percent of total spaces) 2 6% Peaking characteristics Peak hour directional movement as a percent of daily traffic 30 40% Peak 15 minutes as a percent of peak hours 30% Source: H.S. Levinson, adapted from various sources should permit easy maneuverability for both autos and transit vehicles, and maximize safety. They should be integrated with the approach and boundary system. Major circulation routes should be located on the periphery of the parking areas to minimize vehicle-pedestrian conflicts. 1. Circulation patterns should be clear and consistent; drivers should be confronted with only one decision at any given time. 2. The capacity of ingress and egress points should be adequate. 3. Sufficient queue storage space should be provided on parking access roads. 4. Transit vehicles should have physically separated roadways and should not be required to use parking lanes. 5. Turning radii are typically governed by bus turning geometry. 6. Parking aisles should be oriented so pedestrians can use them to reach the rapid transit station. Access ramps and roadways that connect park-and-ride facilities to major commuter routes should avoid excessive interruptions from traffic signals, curb parking interferences, or frequent commercial curb cuts. Grade-separated access to major facilities may be desirable, such as found in the Houston, Boston, and Washington, D.C., areas. Access routes should be related to principal patron directions of approach. When practical, park-and-ride traffic should be evenly distributed over boundary routes and should not be unduly concentrated on a single approach direction. When a choice readily exists, it may be desirable for the park-and-ride lot to be located on the right side for signalized inbound traffic to eliminate the need for left-turn entering movements.

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108 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Access drives located on the left side of a two-way arterial roadway for left-turn storage lanes should provide for vehicles entering the parking facility. Parking entrances and exit locations should avoid spillback from nearby freeway interchanges or intersections. They should be set back at least 150 feet (preferably 250 feet) from nearby inter- sections and spaced at least 350 feet apart. Access points directly opposite freeway ramps or near signalized intersections should be discouraged. Access points should be placed where park-and-ride traffic does not filter through built-up residential neighborhoods or commercial areas. At least two combined entrances and exits should be provided for facilities with more than 500 spaces. Multi-lane access points and separation of entering and exiting traffic is desirable, especially where facilities exceed 500 spaces. Roadway design and traffic management plans should accommodate peak surges. (About 40 percent of the daily traffic entering a transit park-and-ride site occurs in the facility's peak hour and 30 percent of the peak hour traffic enters in the peak 15 minutes.) One-way entrance and exits can simplify pedestrian crossings along boundary roads and streets. Traffic engineering analysis should identify where acceleration, deceleration, and turning lanes should be provided at large facilities. They should be installed as specified in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices and coordinated with nearby traffic signals. Directional and informational signs along major highway routes leading to the park-and-ride facility should make it easy to reach. Internal signage should delineate commuter parking passenger drop-off and pick-up areas and bus passenger loading areas. Facility Arrangement The internal site design should minimize walking distance to rapid transit stations. The following location priorities are suggested in terms of proximity to the station: (1) bus loading/ unloading (when buses use access to park-and-ride); (2) taxi loading/unloading (may mix with buses or cars) (see Exhibit 10-13); (3) handicapped parking; (4) passenger drop-off and pick-up Exhibit 10-13. Taxi loading area (Metropark, NJ). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.

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Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride 109 Exhibit 10-14. Park-and-ride integrated with rapid transit station (New Carrollton, Maryland). Source: 2011 Google (kiss-and-ride); (5) bicycle and motorcycle parking; (6) short-term parking; and (7) long-term parking (Exhibit 10-14). Exhibit 10-14 shows how park-and-ride facilities can be arranged to give priority access to buses, taxis, and kiss-and-ride patrons. Parking is oriented to enable parkers to use parking aisles as walkways to reach the transit terminal. Entrance and exit points are separated to simplify traffic controls and vehicle routings, and to minimize pedestrian conflicts. Bus Access Bus access to rapid transit station entrances and platforms can be provided in several ways. Buses can use access drives to parking spaces to reach the station entrances. This works where there are less than 350500 spaces. At larger park-and-ride facilities, buses should have separate roadways to reach station entrances. Many transit agencies provide separate areas for bus access, kiss-and-ride, and park-and-ride. Facilities are clustered around the rapid transit station entrance. An illustrative example is shown in Exhibit 10-15. Where park-and-ride spaces are provided in parking structures, bus access is usually provided around the perimeter of the structure (Exhibit 10-16). Bus roadways should permit passing stopped or standing buses. Buses should not be required to back up within station areas.

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110 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 10-15. Park-and-ride lot separated from bus loading and transit platform access (Willowdale, Ontario). Source: 2011 Google Exhibit 10-16. Bus access around parking structure (Cambridge, Massachusetts). Source: 2011 Google

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Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride 111 Connecting bus service determines many design dimensions. Key design considerations include minimum lateral and vertical clearances and provision of adequate turning radii, roadway widths, and sight distances. Chapter 9 provides more detailed guidance on bus access to rapid transit stations. Bus terminals can also be incorporated into, or on the perimeter of, large parking garages. Kiss-and-Ride Kiss-and-ride facilities (Exhibit 10-17) should be provided wherever possible. These facilities at rapid transit stations typically include areas used for dropping-off and picking-up transit passengers, as well as taxi stands and provisions for paratransit vehicles and private shuttle buses. It may be possible to combine kiss-and-ride and transit areas provided that automobiles not delay transit vehicles (60). Kiss-and-ride facilities should be designed to maximize vehicle turnover, facilitate traffic circulation, and minimize conflicts between vehicles and pedestrians. One-way traffic flow is desirable, and the site access plan should permit vehicles to recirculate. All stations, whether or not they have park-and-ride facilities, should provide kiss-and-ride where practicable, sized to meet forecast or demonstrated demand. Denver RTD suggests that stations located in TOD areas could be accommodated by on-street kiss-and-ride facilities, subject to the review of local jurisdictions. Except where prevented by physical site constraints, the kiss-and-ride should not exceed 400 feet walking distance from the platform center. The kiss-and-ride should have a direct line-of-sight to the station entrance. Pedestrian crossings from the drop-off/pick-up lane should include a stop sign and marked crosswalk. Signage should direct both vehicles and passengers exiting stations to the drop-off/pick-up area. The parking spaces for vehicles waiting to pick-up passengers should be conveniently located and visible to the passenger pick-up area. Pavement should have a maximum 3% cross slope. Exhibit 10-17. Kiss-and-ride area (Seattle). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.

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112 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations About 7 to 8 minutes time per vehicle is needed on average during the P.M. peak period for vehicles waiting to pick-up waiting passengers. Taxis should be provided with a separate loading area. Station Pedestrian Circulation Safe and convenient pedestrian access from adjacent streets and from within the park-and-ride facilities is essential. Walking paths should be direct (see Exhibit 10-18). Ideally, distances from parking space to the rapid transit station should be less than 600 feet; distances should never exceed mile. Parking aisles should be oriented toward the transit boarding area to shorten walking distances and facilitate walking. Special walkways should be provided, at least 5 feet wide. At the rapid transit station entrance, walking and waiting areas should be at least 12 feet wide. The coefficient of directness (ratio of actual length of walking path to the airline distance) should not exceed 1.2 to 1.4. Parking spaces should be as close to the passenger station platforms as possible. Denver RTD specifies that at least half of the parking spaces be located within 600 feet of the station platforms and that all spaces be located within 1,500 feet (air distances). These figures translate into maximum walking distances of 840 and 2,100 feet, respectively (60). Exhibit 10-18. Direct and open connection to transit station (Englewood, Colorado). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.