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TOD and Station Access 117 Exhibit 11-2. Parking structure at a rapid transit station (Sierra Madre Metro Station, Los Angeles). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. development requirements and procedures, and provide criteria for evaluating competing development proposals. Neighborhood concerns about TOD can include resistance to changes in density, along with concerns about spillover traffic and parking and an influx of new, perhaps different, neighbors. These can be complex issues, but they have been addressed through the planning process with outreach, collaborative planning, and design adaptations and, in some cases, community-based design charrettes in which communityagency teams identify problems and seek design and operating solutions for them. These processes and financing actions, while they will not always work, offer the basis for making the trade-offs and compromises often necessary to implement TOD. The value of such actions can be assessed over the long run by tracking the implementation and operation of local TODs. Development Types and Sizes The types and sizes of TOD in rapid transit station environs depend on many related factors. These factors include land size, shape, terrain, and costs; zoning requirements; market potential; transit ridership effects; and traffic and parking impacts. The basic types of land development are summarized in Exhibit 11-3 and consist of the following: · At one end of the spectrum are activities that are located within the transit station, such as newsstands and eating establishments that draw their patrons from people traveling to
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118 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 11-3. Basic types of TOD. Large Scale Commercial Commercial Commercial Central Residential Mega-Center within on Adjacent or Mixed-Use Business Development (or Town Station Streets Development District Center) Location Within, above, Around station Area Area adjacent Area adjacent City center and or below surrounding to and to and environs station station surrounding surrounding station station Town Center Activities Convenience Convenience Mainly trips to GAF retail Retail Retail retail retail work/school Office Office Office Fast food Eating Shop Some Residential Government establishments establishments residential Some Office: residential above/below station Examples Grand Central Metro-North Francisco Lenox Square, Central City, Downtown Station, NY Westport Station, Brown Atlanta Los Angeles Boston Metro-North Station, CT Line, Chicago Downtown San New Haven Francisco Station, CT Transit Mainly existing Mainly existing Some new Some new Could attract Would attract Ridership riders riders riders riders, mainly considerable considerable from new new transit new transit residential riders riders areas Traffic & Minimum Minimum Some, however Could require Considerable, Considerable. Parking residential garages to would need Best strategy is Impacts parking can be accommodate adequate to limit CBD removed from top patrons, development employee station parking likely increase space and parking in street traffic addition to expansion volume parking supply or from trains. These activities generate few, if any, traffic, parking, or transit ridership impacts. · Next in size are small convenience retail stores and eating establishments located along streets that front the transit station. In most cases, these activities also generate minimal impacts. · Residential developments that are located near stations may generate rapid transit trips, especially where transit provides fast and frequent service to the city centers. Parking requirements are linked to non-work travel requirements, since the work trip is likely to be made by rapid transit. · Retail and mixed-use developments around stations require parking space beyond that normally provided by park-and-ride facilities. A common practice is to increase the avail- able parking space by building garages serving both development visitors and commuters. Increased traffic volumes usually call for roadway improvements. These developments can generate increased transit ridership and can also enhance the pedestrian environment for existing passengers (Exhibit 11-4 and Exhibit 11-5 show examples of development adjacent to rail stations). · Large scale mega-center developments have the combined effects of increasing both transit rider ship and parking. A planning challenge is making them both transit- and pedestrian-friendly.