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120 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 11-6. Under-utilized surface parking lot as development opportunity (Metropark, NJ). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. The number of TOD projects continues to increase. Some illustrated examples are shown in Exhibit 11-7. Further examples of TOD are found in many urban areas, such as San Francisco, Washington, D.C., and Atlanta, and include the following: Arlington, Virginia, where the Metro line runs in a subway, has adopted form-based zoning, with commercial zoning around rail stations. Rosslyn has emerged as a major center because of the excellent transit service and its proximity to Central Washington. Major stations in affluent areas such as Friendship Heights, Bethesda, and Silver Spring, Maryland, have attracted considerable development, including large retail stores. Atlanta's north corridor rail line, located alongside or within the Route 400 freeway, has major developments at several stations, including the Lindbergh Center, Medical Center, and North Spring stations. TriMet's Westside MAX light rail has attracted TOD at several stations, including Orenco Station and 185th Street. General Guidelines Some guidelines and perspectives for TOD follow: 1. Serve Strong Markets. Viable markets are essential. Markets depend on population, the income and demographic characteristics of the likely catchment area, and the likely competition. Densely developed neighborhoods, especially within a -mile radius of rapid transit stations, can provide a good market. Some activities in TODs, however, will attract patrons from a large area by rail or by road. 2. Reflect Community Objectives. TOD in rapid transit station environs should reflect com- munity goals and objectives. The sizes and types of development should be acceptable to the impacted community (see Exhibit 11-8). 3. Provide Supportive Community Zoning. Zoning policies for the station and its environs should support the planned development. "Station overlay" zones are one possible way to permit desired developments.

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TOD and Station Access 121 Exhibit 11-7. Examples of mixed-use TOD projects. Locationa Development Mix Situation Travel Impact Ballston 5,914 residential units The Ballston area has The walk mode share of Station Area Office: 5,721,000 sf transformed from an access/egress for the Arlington, VA Retail: 840,000 sf automobile-oriented close-in station in 2002 was 67% 1960-2002 Hotel: 430 rooms suburb into a full-fledged TOD of about 22,000 average since the HRT Metrorail station daily entries plus exits. opened in 1979, supported by Case study, "Arlington strong planning. Retail activity County, Virginia, TOD in Ballston is bolstered by an Densities," provides enclosed destination shopping additional findings. mall located within walking distance. Village Green 250 condominiums The Village Green project is Of all downtown Arlington Office: 17,000 sf located in downtown Arlington residents (inclusive of Heights, IL Retail: 53,000 sf Heights, near the commuter Village Green project), 2001 railroad station. A big grocery 17% report Metra as store is also within walking their primary commute distance. One of several mode, versus 7% for all downtown redevelopment of Arlington Heights. projects. Mockingbird 211 apartments This $105 million project is Parking requirement Station Office: 140,000 sf located on a 10-acre site 4 reduction of 27% was Dallas, TX Retail: 180,000 sf b miles from the CBD via LRT, allowed for shared use 2000 adjacent to SMU and the North parking. About 10% of Central Expressway. A full patrons are reported to service grocery store is within arrive by transit. 5 minutes on foot. Hazard 120 condominiums Constructed on formerly No quantitative travel Center Office: 300,000 sf industrial land, this development data given. The San Diego, Retail: 136,000 sf on the Mission Valley LRT line supermarket has been CA Hotel: 300 rooms has gradually grown into a observed to serve 1997 horizontally mixed, mixed-use customers from other center. Pedestrian-friendly rail stations. design encourages living, working, and shopping within the self-contained community. a Notes: Date(s) indicate time of implementation for the development mix indicated. b Figure includes retail, restaurants, and entertainment uses. sf = square feet. Source: TCRP Report 102 (22 ) 4. Transit Agency Initiatives. Transit agencies should take the initiative. The Denver RTD suggests preparing a strategic plan for TOD. This plan should be visible and continuously updated. The policies should form an integral part of the station design process (23). These policies define development requirements and procedures, and provide criteria for evaluating competing development proposals. Several North American transit agencies have begun to act as developers, financing and organizing developments around their stations. TriMet in Portland, Oregon, for example, partnered with the Portland Development Commission to develop a 3-acre site for a 100,000-square-foot medical office building that was built along the Red and Blue Max Lines (24) and that includes both station area plazas. 5. Advance Property Acquisition. Land in the environs of stations should be acquired by transit agencies once the rapid transit alignment is finalized. This is especially important along extensions of both existing and new services. It will make the land readily available

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122 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 11-8. TOD integrated into community revitalization (Rahway, NJ). Source: NJ Transit for development before the line is built and opened for revenue service. It allows timely construction of TOD. 6. Focus on Maximizing Ridership. Transit and planning agencies should encourage land uses that will contribute to rapid transit ridership. Examples of such uses include residential developments and large office complexes that are clustered around stations. BART found that transit will capture over 40 percent of residential work trips. Exhibit 11-9 illustrates the transit capture assumptions by trip type at BART. 7. Provide Developments Instead of Parking. There are certain situations where TOD should be considered as an alternative to providing parking. These locations include: (1) the city Exhibit 11-9. Example TOD transit capture by trip type. Trip type split Percent transit capture Development type Trip type (%) (%) Residential Residential work 25 40.5 Residential non-work 75 8.55 Retail All 100 11.7 Medical Office All 100 101 1 Medical office transit capture was estimated by BART Source: BART (1)