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2 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations How should pedestrian, bicycle, transit, and auto access be integrated into the site plan for the station and its environs? What guidelines underlie the provisions of park-and-ride? When are garages preferable to surface parking? What provisions should be made for TOD and integrating station access with the surrounding neighborhoods? Under what circumstances are feeder bus services likely to provide a cost-effective means of providing station access? What are ways to maximize access at constrained stations? General Guidelines Following are general guidelines on providing access to transit stations. These are described in greater detail in various chapters of this report. Providing access to rapid transit stations should be a cooperative effort by the transit, street transportation, and planning agencies, as well as the surrounding community. The transit agency should be proactive in this effort. Station access plans should result from comprehensive and cooperative planning processes that identify needs and opportunities and lead to effective and accepted results. Station access generally should be multi-modal. The predominant access travel modes depend upon type of land use, street spacing, and development density, among other factors (see Exhibit 1-1). Walking dominates station access in the city center and in contiguous high-density residential areas. Both walking and bus access are the main means of reaching stations within the central city. Suburban stations are typically serviced by autos, buses, and pedestrians. Exhibit 1-1 provides only a summary of key factors related to access; many other factors also affect the mix of access modes at a given station (e.g., network connectivity). Chapter 4 provides detailed information on the different types of transit stations and the various factors that typically affect access. Improvements to station access should consider the planned build-out of the station area so as not to conflict with or inhibit future planning. Exhibit 1-1. Land use and development density. Typical Net Typical Distance Residential from City Center Density Primary Arrival Location Type (miles) (people/sq. mi.) Modes 1 Central Business 02 NA Pedestrian District Pedestrian Central City 2 10 8,000 20,000 Bus Park-and-Ride Inner Suburbs 10 15 4,000 6,000 Bus Outer Suburbs 15 25 2,500 4,000 Park-and-Ride Exurbia Over 25 Varies Park-and-Ride 1 Primary arrival modes indicate how the majority of riders access the station, although most stations will attract at least some from all access modes.