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Introduction 3 Since there are variations in land use and density, more specific guidance is necessary. Accordingly, a 12-station typology based on eight factors is provided to guide station access decisions. TOD in the station environs may be fostered when warranted by market considerations, but should be balanced with the need to provide adequate parking near stations to sustain ridership. Development adjacent to stations should feature transit-oriented design characteristics (e.g., pedestrian-friendly, direct transit access from local land uses) to maximize ridership potential. Pedestrian circulation should form the foundation of the station access plan. Transit passengers walk between home and bus stops, between bus stops and station entrances, and between parking facilities and station entrances. They then walk through the station to the rail or bus platforms. Each step of this trip should be convenient and safe. Specific station, site, roadway, and parking plans should conform to established standards of transit and highway agencies. However, flexibility in design requirements may allow for more efficient use of space in constrained situations (e.g., smaller width parking spaces to increase parking capacity at high demand stations). Organization of the Guidelines This guide contains two basic sections. Part I covers planning, while Part II covers design. Part I, Rapid Transit Station Planning, has four chapters: Chapter 2 provides a detailed eight-step planning process for station planning. Chapter 3 provides specific lessons learned from research case studies to improve the effective ness of the planning process. Chapter 4 sets forth a station typology, provides information on station boarding and arrival volumes and access modes, and provides guidance for establishing policy for station mode of access. Chapter 5 presents techniques for estimated travel demand in terms of station boards by mode and introduces the station access planning tool. Part II, Rapid Transit Station Access Arrangement and Design, provides guidelines for arranging and integrating various station design elements: Chapter 6 overviews station arrangement and design, and provides general guidelines for improving station access. Chapter 7 presents guidelines for enhancing pedestrian access to, from, and within station areas. Chapter 8 offers guidance relating to bicycle access. Chapter 9 contains guidance for improving feeder transit access. Chapter 10 covers park-and-ride locations and arrangements to stations. Chapter 11 discusses TOD and its relation to station access and parking. Appendices The appendices provide detailed additional information: Appendix A summarizes the stakeholder surveys and literature review that formed a basis for the guidance provided in this report;