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Station Typology, Access Modes, and Access Policy Guidance 35 A station typology can help to serve as a starting point for station access planning. In most cases, tools and strategies to improve transit access and egress will only be applicable for a limited set of station types. As a result, successful planning should carefully consider the unique conditions at each individual station. Stations were reviewed according to eight categories: Housing density--a characterization of the housing density in the area around the station. This attribute provides insight into the potential riders that live within walking distance of the station. Scale--average building height in the area surrounding the station. Building scale relates to walkability, density, and activity levels, and helps to illustrate the feel of the station area when combined with some of the other categories. Distance from CBD--a measure of the typical station type's location within the metro area. Stations further from downtown will tend to serve a different market than those closer to the CBD. Stations closer to the urban core tend to emphasize pedestrian connections while commuter stations focus on providing enough parking to meet demand. These locational attributes will vary according to transit mode and other land use considerations. Supporting Transit Network--the level of transit connectivity to other transit services available at the station. This measure identifies how the station operates in the context of the overall transit network and indicates the station's ability to serve a wide-ranging area. Pedestrian/Bike Access--a measure of the completeness and attractiveness of the pedestrian and bicycle networks around the station. Well-formed connections for pedestrians and bicycles are important for assuring successful station access. Surrounding Land Uses--description of the land use mix in the station area. Stations adjacent to different land use types serve different functions. Parking Facilities--the level of off-street parking accommodation provided at the station type. Access/Egress--simple classification (Access/Egress/Both) describing the primary role of the station in the transportation system. Some stations are located at the "home" end of the journey for most passengers, while others represent the destination. This distinction is impor- tant because passengers are more likely to have access to a private vehicle at the "home," or access station. A suggested station access typology is shown in Exhibit 4-3. This classification system applies to stations along commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, and BRT lines. The typology also shows where each access mode should be encouraged. The CBD, which relies mainly on pedestrian access, is included in the urban commercial category. The table defines station type in terms of land use, density, scale, and distance from the CBD. It describes the surrounding land and use, the pedestrian and bicycle access features of the existing transit network, and the likely availability of parking facilities. Example stations are given for each typology. The challenge is to place each station into a specific typology. Therefore, in some circumstances, it is desirable to adopt a simplified station typology model. Such an approach stratifies stations into five base types: (1) CBD, (2) urban--medium to high density, (3) suburban low-density, (4) terminal stations (both transit and auto-dependent), and (5) special conditions. Examples of Station Arrival Modes As part of the research effort, access mode data for over 450 rail transit stations at eight transit systems were collected and summarized. Station types were assigned to each station. The weekday daily average percentage of station users (for all trips) arriving by a particular mode was then com- puted. The results are shown in Exhibit 4-4. Appendix D provides the complete set of access data.

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36 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 4-3. Station access typology. Scale Supporting Station Area Housing (# of Distance Transit Type Density stories) from CBD Network Ped/Bike Access Intermodal Urban High-quality network; High >5 0-10 miles facility/transit Commercial good connectivity hub High-Density High-quality network; Urban High >5 0-10 miles Subregional hub good connectivity Neighborhood Medium- Some local bus High-quality network; Density Urban Medium 2-5 5-10 miles connections good connectivity Neighborhood Urban High-quality network; Neighborhood Medium 2-5 5-10 miles Subregional hub high-volume roadways with Parking may limit connectivity Historic Transit Medium- 10-40 Some local bus High-quality network; 2-5 Village High miles connections good connectivity Good network within Medium- Some local bus Suburban TOD 2-8 5-15 miles station area, some High connections high-volume roadways Limited connectivity, Suburban Medium- 25 5-15 miles Subregional hub some high-volume Village Center High roadways Limited connectivity, Suburban Low- Some local bus 13 5-15 miles some high-volume Neighborhood Medium connections roadways Employer Suburban 10-20 Isolated, difficult Low 0-2 shuttles, limited (Freeway) miles connections bus connections Some local bus Suburban connections, Poor connectivity, high- Employment Low 13 5-15 miles employer volume roadways Center shuttles Suburban Some local bus Poor connectivity, high- Low 13 5-15 miles Retail Center connections volume roadways Intermodal Good connections Intermodal Low- 1-3 5-15 miles facility/transit between systems; Transit Center Medium hub isolated Freeway/ Employer 15-40 Isolated, difficult Highway Park Low 0-2 shuttles, limited miles connections & Ride bus connections 10 30 High-volume roadways, Busway Varies Varies Subregional hub miles difficult connections Limited connectivity Special Event/ Low- Some local bus 13 Varies with emphasis on Campus Medium connections special facility Employer, 15 40 Isolated, difficult Shuttle Station Low 0-2 airport, special miles connections event shuttles Low- High-quality network; Satellite City 1-3 >30 miles Subregional hub Medium good connectivity Limited Isolated, difficult Legacy Low 0-2 Varies connections connections

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Station Typology, Access Modes, and Access Policy Guidance 37 Access/ Parking Rapid Transit Surrounding Land Use Egress Facilities Example Stations Modes Office, residential, institutional, 16th Street/Mission (BART) Heavy Rail No off-street retail, entertainment, and civic Both Lloyd Center (TriMet) Light Rail parking uses East Liberty (Port Authority) BRT Residential, neighborhood retail, No/limited off- Access Kingsbridge Road (NYCT) Heavy Rail limited office street parking Western Pink Line (CTA) Heavy Rail West Baltimore (MARC) Commuter Rail No/limited off- Residential, neighborhood retails Access Othello Station (Sound Transit) Light Rail street parking Euclid Ave/71st St (Cleveland RTA) BRT Hoboken 14th Street (NY Waterway) Ferry Off-street Residential, neighborhood retail Access parking Anacostia (WMATA) Heavy Rail available Residential, neighborhood retail, Some off-street Access Greenwich Station (Metro North) Commuter Rail limited office parking Bethesda (WMATA) Heavy Rail Some off-street Davis Street (Metra) Commuter Rail Residential, neighborhood retail Both parking Orenco Station (TriMet) Light Rail Tunney's Pasture (OC Transpo) BRT Some off-street Residential, neighborhood retail, Downtown Littleton (RTD) Light Rail Access parking commercial Van Nuys (LA Metro) BRT available South Bank (PAT) Light Rail Some off-street Pleasant Park (OC Transpo) BRT Residential, retail, limited office Access parking Route 915 - Columbia (MTA) Commuter Bus available Quincy (MBTA) Ferry Park-and-ride Varies Both Owings Mills (MTA) Heavy Rail prioritized Office, retail and limited Park-and-ride McCormick Road (MTA) Light Rail Egress residential prioritized Maple Island (Lane Transit) BRT Park-and-ride Great Mall Transit Center (VTA) Light Rail Retail, limited office Egress prioritized Warner Center (LA Metro) BRT Forest Hills (MBTA) Heavy Rail Park-and-ride Mukilteo (Sound Transit) Commuter Rail Varies Both often prioritized Bellevue Transit Center (Sound Transit) Commuter Bus Hoboken Transit Terminal (NY Waterway) Ferry Golden Glades (TriRail) Commuter Rail Park-and-ride I-485/South Blvd (CATS) Light Rail Varies Both prioritized Eagleson (OC Transpo) BRT Sammamish Park & Ride (Sound Transit) Commuter Bus Park-and-ride Varies Access El Monte Bus Station (LA Metro) Commuter Bus prioritized Limited off- Hartsfield Airport (MARTA) Heavy Rail Entertainment, airport, and/or Egress street parking Hamburg Street (MTA) Light Rail civic uses available Airport Station (MBTA) BRT Some off-street Varies Egress Great America (ACE) Commuter Rail parking Park-and-ride Elgin (Metra) Commuter Rail Residential, retail, limited office Both prioritized Port Townsend (WSDOT Ferry) Ferry Some off-street Varies Access St. Denis (MARC) Commuter Rail parking

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38 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 4-4. Average station access mode share by station type. Average Access Mode Percentage Auto Station Type Feeder Auto Walk Bicycle (Park- Bus (Drop- (%) (%) and-Ride) (%) off) (%) (%) Urban Commercial 82 1 10 2 5 High-Density Urban 72 2 14 4 10 Neighborhood Medium-Density 80 1 9 4 7 Urban Neighborhood Urban Neighborhood 35 3 21 10 31 with Parking Historic Transit 25 1 3 17 53 Village Suburban TOD 32 2 13 14 39 Suburban Village 30 2 16 12 40 Center Suburban 29 1 11 13 46 Neighborhood Suburban Freeway 10 1 12 12 65 Suburban 29 3 25 9 36 Employment Center Suburban Retail 30 2 19 11 39 Center Intermodal Transit 27 1 36 6 30 Center Special 55 2 24 6 13 Event/Campus Satellite City 7 6 12 16 59 Information was not available for some stations types, including busway, shuttle, and "legacy" rapid transit stations. These stations are individual by system and location: each has its own history and context. System-wide Station Access Modes System-wide station access modes in Denver and Washington, D.C., are shown in Exhibit 4-5. Washington's Metro, which has a larger service area and a stronger CBD than Denver, has a greater proportion of walking trips and a lower proportion of automobile trips. Buses accounted for about 20 percent of the boardings in both systems. Heavy Rail and Light Rail Access Examples of heavy rail and light rail station types, boardings, and passenger arrival modes at individual stations are shown in Exhibit 4-6 and Exhibit 4-7 respectively. Key observations are: The station typology works in classifying stations. However, in some cases, additional classification appears desirable. At most stations, more than one mode serves a significant percentage of arriving passengers.

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Station Typology, Access Modes, and Access Policy Guidance 39 Exhibit 4-5. Weekday station access modes in Denver and Washington, D.C. Denver LRT WMATA(%) Access Mode SE SW Corridor (%) Corridor (%) Drove Alone 35 40 29 Carpooled - 5 1 Dropped Off 5 5 9 Subtotal Auto 40 50 39 Bus 29 21 22 Walked 28 25 33 Bicycled 3 1 1 Other 0 3 5a Total 100% 100% 100% a 4% commuter rail Source: Denver RTD and WMATA The main access modes are walking, transit, and auto driving. Bicycles, where present, usually account for less than five percent of passenger arrivals. The highest numbers of boardings (and alightings) are in the CBD and some adjacent high- density areas. Pedestrian access dominates in the CBD, followed by transit. Transit and walking are the main means of arrival in cities and at other non-CBD stations serving high-density areas. However, where parking is provided, walking and automobile access can be greater than access by feeder transit. Stations at well-established commercial centers also rely on the three main access modes. Suburban stations rely mainly on park-and-ride access, followed by transit. While park-and- ride access dominates at multi-level garages, adjacent bus terminals can serve a quarter of all passenger arrivals. Urban and suburban transit centers can bring more passengers into stations than in areas of similar density without such facilities. Well-planned transfers are essential at these locations. Major BRT interchange facilities can account for half or more of all passenger arrivals. Commuter Rail Boarding Data on selected access modes for six high-ridership Metra commuter rail stations in long- established Chicago suburbs were obtained. The average access mode percentages are shown in Exhibit 4-8. Approximately 0.75 parking spaces were provided per boarding passenger at these stations. Automobile Access The prevalence of auto access among various rapid transit stations is shown in Exhibit 4-9. The data for the New York area excludes the New York City subway system that relies mainly on pedestrian access. Exhibit 4-10 shows arrival mode share at stations with major park-and-ride facilities along Boston's Red Line in 1984. Automobile access dominated, accounting for almost 60 percent of all boardings at these stations. However, there were still considerable proportions of pedestrian and bus access at most of the stations.

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40 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 4-6. Examples of station boardings and arrival modes (heavy rail rapid transit). Percent by Arrival Mode (%) City & Weekday Drive Drop- System Station Type Boardings Walk Bicycle Transit alone off Other San Francisco Montgomery St. CBD 32,520 91 1 7 0 1 0 (BART) Oakland City Center CBD 13,380 92 1 4 0 1 0 16th St. Mission Urban Commercial 11,400 72 6 16 2 4 0 Downtown Berkeley Urban Commercial 11,930 84 5 7 2 2 0 Suburban Walnut Creek Neighborhood 6,040 24 2 13 47 14 0 Boston Suburban (MBTA): Wonderland Neighborhood 4,350 10 0 17 65 8 0 Blue Line Urban Neighborhood Beachmont with Parking 1,900 50 1 7 34 8 0 Urban Neighborhood Orient Heights with Parking 2,710 28 1 34 23 15 0 Medium-Density Maverick Urban Neighborhood 5,550 64 0 23 8 4 0 Boston Suburban (MBTA): Oak Grove Neighborhood 4,970 31 2 22 26 19 0 Orange Line Intermodal Transit Sullivan Square Center 6,070 28 0 53 16 3 0 Downtown Crossing CBD 3,410 88 0 14 2 2 0 Chinatown Special Urban 1,810 83 1 11 2 1 2 Back Bay Urban 3,140 45 0 53 0 0 2 Massachusetts Ave Urban-High Density 2,720 87 2 9 1 0 1 Ruggles Urban 4,410 54 0 42 4 0 0 Stony Brook Special Urban 2,380 94 0 0 3 3 0 Intermodal Transit Forest Hills Center 10,480 31 0 51 13 5 0 Boston Suburban (MBTA): Alewife Employment Center 7,570 27 6 24 36 7 0 Red Line High-Density Urban Harvard Square Neighborhood 10,210 49 1 48 2 1 0 Central Square Urban Commercial 7,860 84 1 12 3 1 0 Downtown Crossing CBD - 86 0 13 0 0 1 High-Density Urban Andrew Neighborhood 3,670 66 1 23 6 4 0 Special JFK/ UMass Event/Campus 4,280 51 0 37 7 5 0 Suburban Quincy Center Neighborhood 5,930 42 1 31 17 9 0 Quincy Adams Suburban Freeway 3,180 8 0 3 78 11 0 Braintree Suburban Terminal 3,040 13 0 9 52 25 0 Ashmont Urban Terminal 4,590 55 0 29 10 6 0 - Indicates data not available Source: BART, MBTA

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Station Typology, Access Modes, and Access Policy Guidance 41 Exhibit 4-7. Examples of station boardings and arrival modes (light rail transit). Percent by Arrival Mode (%) City & Weekday Drive Drop- System Station Type Boardings Walk Bicycle Transit alone off Other New Jersey Trenton (3 Stations) Urban/CBD - 32 6 36 14 7 5 Transit Downtown Camden Urban/CBD - 26 3 54 5 8 4 (4 Stations) Regional Park-and-Ride Suburban - 4 0 4 77 13 2 (3 Stations) Town Center/Other Suburban - 25 2 18 41 11 3 (10 Stations) Portland, OR Hatfield Government Suburban Village 640 34 0 30 29 7 0 (TriMet) Center Center Hillsboro Central TC Suburban Village 900 58 0 27 7 8 0 Center Willow Creek Transit Intermodal 780 18 0 41 36 5 0 Center Transit Center Beaverton Transit Center Suburban Retail 3,860 58 0 25 8 9 0 Center Pioneer Square South Urban 11,490 86 0 13 1 0 0 Commercial Old Town/ Chinatown Urban 2,350 87 0 7 5 1 0 Commercial Lloyd Center/NE 11th Urban 2,840 70 0 16 13 1 0 Ave Commercial Gateway/NE 99th Ave TC Intermodal 4,640 15 0 44 38 3 0 Transit Center E 162nd Ave Medium-Density 940 70 0 10 8 12 0 Urban Neighborhood Gresham Transit Center Suburban Village 2,200 37 0 34 22 7 0 Center Portland Int'l Airport Special Event/ 2,040 89 0 6 2 3 0 Campus - Indicates data not available Source: NJ Transit, TriMet Exhibit 4-8. Commuter rail access mode percentages (Metra). Mode Percentage of Arrivals (%) Drive alone 47 Carpool 4 Dropped off 14 Subtotal Auto 65 Walk 22 Bus 11 Other 35 Source: Metra

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42 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 4-9. Prevalence of auto access among transit riders (percent of access). Auto Total Popu- Transit Transit Passen- Drop- Auto Urban Area lation System Mode Year Driver ger off Access New York 21,200,000 LIRR, CRR, ferry, 1998 32% 8% 40% No. New Metro express bus Jersey, NY- North, NJ-CT-PA NJT Chicago, IL- 9,160,000 Metra CRR 1994 55 6 13 74 IN-WI a CTA HRT 1997 8.5 <0.7 3.0 12 San Francisco 7,040,000 Caltrain CRR 2001 40.3 12.8 53.1 Oakland BART HRT 1998 39 10 49 San Jose, CA Houston 4,670,000 Metro Commuter 1995 75.0 4.1 79.1 Galveston, TX bus (HOV) Pittsburgh, 2,360,000 PAT LRT 1996- 36.5 1.1 8.0 45.6 PA 97 PAT Bus incl. 1996- 7.7 0.2 2.9 10.8 busway 97 Portland, OR- 2,260,000 Trimet LRT 1997- 25.9 1.1 6.1 33.1 WA 98 Sacramento- 1,800,000 RT LRT 1996- 22.5 0.5 5.1 28.1 Yolo, CA 97 Buffalo, NY 1,170,000 NFTA LRT 1997- 17.7 1.0 2.0 20.7 98 a Note: Percentage shown is for "other" mode of access, including auto passenger (in parked auto), thus the true auto passenger percentage is less. The corresponding total auto access percentage is necessarily approximated. Sources: Adapted from TCRP Report 95 (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ) Exhibit 4-10. Arrival modes at selected Red Line stations (Boston). Park- Dropped System Walk Bus and- Other Off Ride Braintree Station 5% 10% 58% 27% 1% Quincy Adams Station 6 3 80 10 <1 Quincy Center Station 24 41 21 13 0 Wollaston Station 44 2 40 15 0 North Quincy Station 33 4 52 10 1 All Five Stations 25 12 46 16 1 Source: Adapted from TCRP Report 95 (2, 11 )