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4 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Appendix B provides an overview of existing analysis tools related to transit station access; Appendix C, which is available electronically as an attachment to the report, presents a spreadsheet-based station analysis tool for assessing various station access alternatives and instructions for use. Appendix C offers detailed instructions on using the tool, which is avail- able on a CD accompanying the report and online at www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/166516.aspx. Appendix D includes a summary of existing data related to transit access collected as part of the research project, including access mode share characteristics for example stations throughout the United States; and Appendix E contains detailed descriptions of the project's case studies. Future Research Needs The case studies clearly pointed to the lack of industry tools available for station mode of access planning. This research developed a station access planning tool (Appendix C) that pro- vides the first industry tool designed specifically to evaluate the trade-offs between transit station access modes. The following two areas have been identified as the most critical for additional research: 1. Predictive models are important to answer critical "if/then" questions in support of station access planning (e.g., to predict ridership for an access mode or parking response to pricing changes). Several transportation agencies use proprietary models, usually developed by con- sultants. Traditional models used for regional transportation planning may not be sufficiently sensitive or detailed enough to evaluate station access mode options. This is a critical gap in available tools, particularly given the important role that station access services play in the success of major capital investment in rapid transit systems. Development of a state-of-the-art package of station access planning models could be a good research project. 2. Comprehensive evaluation tools are used to predict outcomes of various access-related actions. Few transit agencies have objective tools to estimate parking demand, the effect of TOD on ridership, and cost-effectiveness of feeder buses. The evaluation tool developed through this project is a reasonable staring point, but it can be refined and enhanced as agencies begin to apply it to real-world challenges. Developing such tools could be accomplished through a TCRP research project. Note that the accuracy of such tools in practice will likely rely on good input data from individual transit agencies.