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Station Typology, Access Modes, and Access Policy Guidance 43 Access Policy Guidelines The above information regarding access mode share characteristics based on station typology and rapid transit service suggest several lessons for improving transit access. Transit agencies should establish station access policy guidelines both for upgrading existing stations and look- ing toward future system expansion. Several systems have already established such guidelines, including BART and WMATA. The guidelines should apply to both new and existing stations. They should provide both arrival mode and transit station development policies, as population and employment characteristics in the - to 1-mile area around stations have an important bearing on passengers' choice of access mode. Transit agency policies often encourage low-cost, high-capacity access modes that produce the highest ridership and revenue benefits for the transit operator at the least cost. The number of people accessing a station by walking increases with increasing population density within a -mile radius. The presence of local retail and the absence of significant crime are also conducive to walking. Coordinating the bus routes and schedules of the various bus operators serving stations should be encouraged. Parking, while costly, remains essential. Parking charges can cover some or all parking operating costs, depending on demand and market factors. Transit agencies should consider the following guidelines in establishing station access policy: All modes should be considered, as most stations will have at least some arrivals by each access mode. A station typology can be used to govern the arrival modes that should be encouraged or discouraged at particular types of stations. Access targets may be set for each station type to help guide decisions regarding appropriate access improvements. System-wide targets also may be established. It is more difficult to successfully develop park-and-ride in built-up areas. Small park-and- ride facilities around such stations should generally not be provided due to potential impacts of spillover parking on adjacent neighborhoods; however, provisions for passenger drop-off and pick-up could be desirable. Walking should be particularly encouraged as an access mode for stations in built-up areas. This outcome can best be achieved by increasing or intensifying the density of residential developments within a -mile radius of stations. Pedestrian access should be safe, convenient, pleasant, and direct. Sometimes it is possible to improve pedestrian access by buying a parcel or building a pedestrian bridge across barriers. Transit service standards for local (feeder) bus service should encourage clear, frequent, and direct routes. Fare policies should minimize costs to transfer between feeder buses and rapid transit.