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60 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Improved pedestrian facilities at some existing stations may have the potential to substantially increase pedestrian access. For example, a study of the El Monte bus station in Los Angeles showed that nearly 13,000 people live within 1 km (0.6 miles) of the station, but less than 1,000 have a feasible walking path to it due to connectivity barriers. As a result, the pedestrian mode share is only 4 percent, far below what the research indicates it should be. The author further estimated that moderate improvements to the pedestrian pathways could increase the walk-in population by as much as eight-fold (31). Interagency Coordination As described in Chapters 2 and 6, interagency coordination is essential to achieve improved transit access; this is also true for pedestrian access, as the responsibility for providing sidewalks, traffic signals, crosswalks, and other pedestrian improvements on roadways approaching the station usually falls on the local jurisdiction or state DOT rather than the transit agency (which is typically responsible only for the land it owns). As a result, transit agencies may not be able to achieve many of the design principles listed below without coordination with roadway agencies. One example of interagency coordination is Denver's RTD, which works with numerous local jurisdictions to improve pedestrian access to stations. One purpose of its 2009 Access Guidelines is to provide guidance to local jurisdictions for station area improvements to ensure a consistent approach system-wide. While RTD places pedestrian access at the top of its access hierarchy, working to implement pedestrian improvements located outside of RTD property can be a challenge. While local jurisdictions may ask RTD to pay for these improvements, RTD will typically only fund improvements located on its property. TOD policies and processes are an exception to this general rule, where the agency's ridership needs are satisfied through employment, retail, and housing development near its stations. New York City's Safe Routes to Transit program is another example of how a local government program can directly affect transit access. New York City Transit street supervisors help identify missing sidewalks for that element of the program, as part of a larger effort to create collaboration between the city government and transit agency. Buses that are more accessible offer a higher level of service to subway stations as well. Factors Affecting Pedestrian Access The primary factor affecting pedestrian access is distance. In general, stations with higher-density land uses in the surrounding area (i.e., more destinations within walking distance of the station) will have higher pedestrian access. This is both intuitive and documented through numerous data collection and modeling efforts. Traditionally, mile has been assumed as the reasonable maximum walking distance for pedestrian access to high-capacity transit, in which those passengers located less than mile from the station will walk, and others will not. However, surveys of walk access trips show that the mean rapid transit walk access trip length is nearly 0.5 miles, and that many pedestrians walk more than 0.5 miles to access rapid transit. This indicates that the traditional focus on only the first half mile may underestimate the actual potential for walking trips. In addition, the research shows that there are many factors other than distance that affect the decision whether to walk, including urban design, pedestrian facilities, crime, and individual characteristics. By considering these factors, agencies have the potential to increase walking mode share to stations (33).