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80 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations the most efficient in terms of space, and they minimize route deviation that inconvenience through (non-transferring) passengers. They have lower costs and also help to create a more pedestrian- oriented sidewalk. Low volumes of buses and passengers generally can be accommodated with minimum street improvements. Off-street Stations Off-street stations are commonly provided in suburban areas where many routes converge at a single location. Sometimes the decision will reflect a trade-off between the needs of through passengers and those transferring to rapid transit. The choice of location should reflect the relative volumes of each group of passengers. Off-street provision, or a combination of on-street and off-street, may be appropriate in the following instances: Stations where many buses must layover or wait to provide timed transfers, and there is insufficient curb space to meet this need on-street. Stations where the entrance is set back a significant distance from the sidewalk to minimize the distance transferring passengers must walk. Terminals are sometimes located on the ground floor or along the perimeter of a parking garage. Examples include the Alewife Quincy Center and Quincy Adams garages in the Boston area. Access Objectives and Guidelines For surface transit to be a competitive access mode to rapid transit, it must provide passengers with a seamless journey. Walking distances must be short and conflict free, bus service must be frequent, and the bus and rapid transit station environment must be pleasant. Transfers should be free, where possible, and at a minimum fare collection technologies should be integrated with one another. Minimize Walking Distances This objective requires placing bus stops and station entrances close to each other, with safe and direct routes between the rapid transit platforms and the connecting bus services. Sometimes, grade-separated pedestrian access over bus stops adjacent to the station entrance should be provided where both pedestrian and bus volumes are very high. Place Bus Stops in Suitable Locations Both on-street and off-street bus stops should be placed in suitable locations that make walking routes to stations short and safe (Exhibit 9-5). Bus stops should be located to minimize walking distances to station entrances and should avoid the need to cross roadways, particularly busy arterials. Where a roadway must be crossed, the bus stop should be located adjacent to a marked crosswalk. Passengers should not have to cross more than one major roadway. Bus stops should be immediately visible upon exiting the rapid transit station. Bus stops should be located where they will not block crosswalks, obstruct traffic signals, or be obscured from motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians. Everything else being equal, on-street bus stops are preferable. However, off-street facilities may be necessary to accumulate multiple routes, to serve bus layovers and transfers between bus routes, and to avoid having passengers walk through parking lots. Buses should be able to reach off-street transfer facilities via congestion-free routes, including dedicated lanes or roadways where practical. However, buses do not need to be segregated

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Transit Access 81 Exhibit 9-5. Bus stops located adjacent to rail platform (University of Denver RTD Station, CO). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. from other traffic when no adverse travel impacts are forecast. Sensitive transit-oriented traf- fic engineering treatments may be necessary. Bus access should be separated from auto access when there are more than 10 to 15 peak hour buses entering or exiting the station, or where there are more than 350 parking spaces. Bus-only access roads should have a minimum one-way width of 18 to 24 feet. The inside turning radius should be at least 30 feet. Provide Attractive Feeder Bus Service Connecting bus service must be frequent and reliable. The bus route structure should be direct and clear. Route deviations should be avoided. There should be minimal and predictable wait times between modes. Passengers tend to consider time spent waiting for a bus or train as more burdensome than time actually spent traveling. Providing real-time information about transit arrival times helps alleviate passenger uncertainty of bus arrivals and reduces the wait time burden. Connecting bus services should operate at relatively frequent headways. Route headways gener- ally should not exceed 10 to 15 minutes in the peak hour, and should not exceed 12 to 20 minutes in the off-peak. Route branching should be minimized. It is better to operate fewer services with short headways than many services with long headways. The use of coordinated ticketing can avoid the inconvenience and cost penalties of purchasing separate tickets or fares. Provide Access Priorities at Stations Feeder transit service at stations (particularly within terminal areas) should be prioritized in order of transfer activity. Drop-offs and boardings should be located as close as possible to station entrances. Transit facilities for loading and unloading passengers should be located closer to the station entrance than any other vehicle mode.

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82 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations The paths between passenger loading and unloading areas and the station entrance should be as short as possible. Bus-to-bus transfers and bus-to-rapid transit transfers should be simple and facilitated by minimizing distances between bus stops. An integrated fare system should be established to transfer seamlessly between rapid transit and feeder services. Improve the Pedestrian Environment A safe, comfortable, and convenient environment for intermodal transfers is essential. This is, perhaps, the most important component of station access, since the station area is where passengers spend a considerable amount of time. Passengers need to know where they can stand safely. Accordingly, station planning and design should provide: Well-marked stops indicating which transit services stop at which locations. Real-time passenger information on connecting bus and rail services. This information should be provided at bus stops and in the station itself so that passengers know if they must hurry to the bus stop. Easily understandable maps and schedules for connecting bus and rail services at stops (Exhibit 9-6). Weather protection, seating, lighting, and trash cans at all bus waiting areas. Bus shelters should be designed to provide continuous shelter between the bus stop and station entrance where possible. Shelter design that enables waiting passengers to easily see oncoming vehicles. Sufficient space in waiting areas to safely accommodate pedestrian demand. Weather protection, possibly including radiator heaters along station platforms and in shelters in cold-climate areas. Consider Shuttle Services Shuttles provide a useful complement to regular transit service, particularly to sites such as hospitals, large employers, shopping districts, office parks, and schools. Some offer timed transfers with a limited number of peak period trains, while many circulate continuously providing random Exhibit 9-6. Transit connections display (Los Angeles). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.

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Transit Access 83 Exhibit 9-7. Private shuttle buses serving BART station (MacArthur BART Station, Oakland). Source: Kittelson & Associates, Inc. transfers. Most provide free service to eligible riders. Shuttle buses (Exhibit 9-7) are particularly common in the San Francisco Bay Area, and are growing in popularity in many rapid transit systems. Exhibit 9-8 gives examples of shuttles serving BART and CalTrain stations in San Mateo County, south of San Francisco. Example shuttle services along the east coast include: a University of Massachusetts shuttle to Boston's Red Line; a New Haven shuttle connecting Union Station with the city center; Exhibit 9-8. Shuttles by city, San Mateo County, California. Brisbane Bayshore/Brisbane Commuter (Caltrain) Crocker Industrial Business Park (BART & Caltrain) Burlingame Burlingame Bayside Area (BART & Caltrain) North Burlingame Area (BART & Caltrain) Foster City Foster City Connection Blue Line Foster City Connection Red Line Lincoln Centre (Caltrain) Mariners' Island (Caltrain) North Foster City (BART & Caltrain) Redwood City Redwood City Climate Best Express On Demand Service Redwood City Mid Point Business Park Area (Caltrain) San Mateo Campus Drive Area (Caltrain) Mariners' Island (Caltrain) Norfolk Area (Caltrain) South San Francisco Oyster Point Area (BART) Oyster Point Area (Caltrain) Utah-Grand Area (BART) Utah-Grand Area (Caltrain) Downtown Dasher Midday Taxi

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84 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations employee-oriented shuttles in Norwalk and Stamford, Connecticut; an automated guideway transit (people mover) connection between New Jersey Transit and Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Newark International Airport; a rail shuttle serving downtown Princeton, New Jersey; and a shuttle connecting an Amtrak and commuter rail station with BaltimoreWashington International Airport. All of these shuttles serve major special purpose destinations. Exhibit 9-9 shows the free Green bus shuttle that connects New Haven's Union Station, down- town New Haven, and remote parking lots. The free shuttle operates at 2- to 20-minute intervals from about 6:20 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. The route's cycle time is 15 minutes. It is generally preferable to serve employment destinations by regular bus services, as they have more potential to also serve other riders. Accordingly, care should be taken not to duplicate existing bus services. Effective shuttle services require partnerships between the transit agency and the shuttle service provider. Engaging the community and local employers creates the potential for mutual benefit and leverages a variety of funding sources. This can be challenging in the case of private shuttles, however, as there may not be a clear point-of-contact, and schedules and services often change without notice. See Chapter 2 for more information on improving the planning process and working collaboratively with local partners. Where parking supply is constrained, shuttle services can be used to connect auxiliary parking facilities with the rapid transit service. The bus transfer, with the additional wait and travel time, makes this an inconvenient option from a customer perspective and may impede the success of Exhibit 9-9. Green shuttle bus (New Haven, CT). Source: CT Transit