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OCR for page 89
Transit Access 89 Terminal Access And Arrangement Off-street bus transfer facilities should have direct access from surrounding arterial streets. Street widening, contraflow bus lanes, special bus turn lanes and signals, or even bus grade separations may be desirable to expedite bus flow and minimize conflicts. For example, reserved bus lanes are provided on approaches to Toronto's Eglinton Station; a special left-turn bus lane and traffic signal is provided at Chicago's Jefferson Park Terminal; and a trumpet interchange is provided at Toronto's Warden Terminal. Buses enter Boston's Quincy Adams terminal directly from an adjacent expressway. Sometimes, pedestrian overpasses carry bus passengers over arterial streets. Terminal arrangements and designs should fit the site and the surrounding street patterns. Thus, there is no "typical" bus terminal layover. The amount of bus traffic, possible points of street access, site configuration and frontage area, freeway interchange design, and topo- graphic features govern the layout of specific bus stations. Roadways used by buses should enable buses to stop as close as possible to station entrances with minimal pedestrian-bus conflicts. The objective is to locate the bus doors on the same side of the roadway as the station entrance. As a general principle, the bus platform arrangement should be as compact as possible. This may involve passenger boarding parallel to the station track alignment or perpendicular to it. The perpendicular design results in a "hairpin" configuration with pedestrian circulation on and around the perimeter of the bus platforms. Space between freeway main travel lanes and service roads can be used for bus interchanges when the rapid transit line is located in the freeway median. Initial freeway designs should provide for such facilities. For example, Chicago's 69th and 95th Street Stations incorporated bus bridge terminals in the basic freeway design as a result of advance planning and right-of-way reservation. Terminal Design Examples Some conceptual and actual examples of bus terminals illustrate these guidelines. Arterial Street BusRail Interchange An illustrative busrail interchange is shown in Exhibit 9-13. The most common type of rapid transitlocal transit interchange involves bus turnouts on arterial streets that cross rapid transit lines. Turnouts are located adjacent to station entrance and exit points. The station entrance is located on the side of the street that allows direct pedestrian entry from the major direction of approach. An auxiliary exit can be provided on the other side of the street to minimize midblock pedestrian crossings. A median island with fence may be desirable to preclude midblock pedestrian crossings. Bus Terminal over Freeway and Rapid Transit Line An example of a bus station (the 95th/Dan Ryan terminal in Chicago, Illinois) located over a rapid transit line and freeway is shown in Exhibit 9-14. A single bus bridge in conjunction with a pair of new bus bridges adjacent to frontage roads over a depressed freeway provides direct access for buses from city streets. Buses circulate clockwise around a central express transit station. Such a design may be combined with special bus-actuated traffic signals to allow bus entry and exit from adjacent streets. The Dan Ryan bus terminal occupies a 300 foot by 200 foot envelope. The 22-berth terminal serves more than 12,000 passenger boardings each weekday.
OCR for page 90
90 Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations Exhibit 9-13. Bus-rail interchange. Source: NCHRP Report 155 (41) Major Multi-modal Terminal: Journal Square Transportation Center, Jersey City There are several examples of multi-modal transportation terminals in control areas of cities that include parking facilities, passenger distribution systems (e.g., circulators), bus terminals, and TOD. This multi-modal transportation and commercial center (Exhibit 9-15) is located at a key station along the Port Authority Trans Hudson (PATH) rapid transit line. Exhibit 9-14. Example bus station located over rapid transit line (Chicago, Illinois). Source: © 2011 Google
OCR for page 91
Transit Access 91 Exhibit 9-15. Journal Square Transportation Center (Jersey City, New Jersey). Source: © 2011 Google It provides a vertically integrated interface among the rail, bus, and auto parking modes that incorporates a 10-story office tower and retail space. A grade-separated bus terminal and a 600-space garage service the PATH trains that run every 3 minutes during peak periods. The center, located in air rights above the PATH right-of-way, has been in operation since 1975. The entire complex is owned and operated by a public agency (Port Authority of New York and New Jersey), so it is institutionally as well as modally integrated. Subsequent to its completion, an element of publicprivate ownership was introduced when sections of the office tower were sold to major tenants in an office condominium arrangement.