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OCR for page 92
CHAPTER 10 Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride This chapter contains planning, design, and operations guidelines for rapid transit park-and- ride facilities. General planning and policy objectives are discussed first, followed by suggested guidelines relating to operations, policy and planning, design and operation. The materials, which represent a synthesis and extension of current practice, draw upon such reports as: NCHRP Report 155: Bus Use of Highways: Planning and Design Guidelines (41), Parking (42), TCRP Report 95: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Chapter 3: Park-and-Ride/ Pool (3), and Parking Management--Planning, Design, and Operations (43). The general approach to planning, design, and operations is shown in Exhibit 10-1. This chapter focuses on the planning, operations, and conceptual design aspects. Overview and Objectives Park-and-ride facilities are integral parts of modern rapid transit. They enable rapid transit and automobiles to operate in the environments that each is best suited to serve. They are essential to attract rapid transit riders from residential areas where densities are too low for walking and bus trips. They extend the reach of rapid transit lines and make rapid transit feasible in suburban settings. Their primary function is to provide a convenient transfer point between autos and rapid transit. Why Provide Park-and-Ride Automobile access to rapid transit stations accounts for about 40 percent of all station boardings in San Francisco and Denver, and similar proportions in other cities. Suburban origin stations often have even higher shares of auto access. Park-and-ride facilities, therefore, contribute substantially to ridership. They also have regional mobility and environmental benefits. They shift CBD and activity center parking demand to outlying locations, thereby freeing downtown space for other uses, reduce travel on radial freeways, and provide convenient access to outlying express transit stations. The provision of park-and-ride facilities recognizes that the likelihood of driving increases in areas further from the city center. It allows the trip to be made by rapid transit, thereby saving passengers travel time and expanding the catchment areas of rapid transit service. The secondary distribution by automobile increases the public transport market, reduces the extent of rapid transit investment, and permits wider station spacing, thereby improving rapid transit operating speeds and reducing operating costs. Park-and-ride facilities: Extend the reach of rapid transit lines beyond the terminal stations; Serve CBD employment growth, especially where a lid or ceiling is placed on CBD parking; 92

OCR for page 92
Automobile Access and Park-and-Ride 93 Exhibit 10-1. Park-and-ride planning and design process. PLANNING C Assess needs O Identify potential sites M Evaluate sites (market, availability, physical features, costs, M and usage) U Select preferred sites N I T Y CONCEPTUAL DESIGN O Transit/vehicle/pedestrian access U Internal circulation/parking T Transit interchange R E A C DETAILED DESIGN FEATURES AND AMENITIES H Parking and traffic circulation Pedestrian protection Paving ADA provisions Lighting Amenities Landscaping Security OPERATIONS Prepare operating plans Rate structure/revenue collected for transit services Coordination/security/safety PRELIMINARY DESIGN AND ENGINEERING FINAL DESIGN CONSTRUCTION Source: Parking Management (43 ) Provide station access where station spacing is wide, pedestrian access is difficult, and/or bus service is limited (i.e., headways of more than 15 minutes); Build rapid transit ridership when existing park-and-ride facilities are full, providing additional space that can attract new riders; and Intercept motorists and remove them from congested sections of roadway, translating into reduced vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) and energy consumption. Where to Provide Park-and-Ride Park-and-ride facilities work best where car travel to the city center and other large activity centers is inhibited by traffic congestion, tolls, costly parking, or a combination of these. The multi-modal trip to the city center should be faster (or comparable), more reliable, and less costly than driving. Ideally, the time savings should exceed five minutes.