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TRAFFIC OPERATIONS The operational characteristics of an ATL are similar to that of a CTL, as described in the signalized intersection chapters of the HCM 2010 (2), with one critically important exception: lane utilization. The HCM 2010 does not currently account for the lane utilization impacts associated with limited-length lanes. An adjustment to the HCM procedures is needed to more accurately reflect the amount of traffic that is anticipated to use the ATL. These guidelines present two approaches for estimating the amount of traffic that will use an ATL: Statistical model. Directly estimates the amount of through traffic that will use the ATL using a deterministic approach. This model is used in conjunction with the HCM 2010 signalized intersection procedure (Chapter 3). Microsimulation. Through the modification of lane choice parameters to more accurately reflect actual lane usage, microsimulation software can be applied to predict the performance of an ATL (Appendix A). SAFETY Adding an ATL may decrease an intersection's safety due to the potential for additional sideswipe crashes compared to an intersection without an ATL. However, because an ATL will reduce congestion it may result in fewer rear-end and other congestion-related crashes. It is not clear whether the trade-off between increases in some crash types and decreases in others will generally result in net positive or negative changes in crash frequency. It is clearer, though, that the types of crashes that may increase with an ATL would be less severe than typical crashes at major signalized intersections, on average. Overall, the expectation of a net positive safety impact from an ATL is not unreasonable. The analysis of crash data certainly did not highlight any unusual safety concerns at the ATL sites investigated. GEOMETRIC AND TRAFFIC DESIGN Many fundamental geometric and traffic design principles of CTLs apply to ATLs: The geometric design of the ATL should meet drivers' expectations; Signing and pavement markings should be applied to reinforce the messages conveyed by the geometric design of the ATL; Adequate sight distance should be provided to adequately accommodate advance decision making and emergency stops; and Driveways and other impedances should be located outside of the intersection influence area (which for ATLs includes the entire effective ATL length including upstream and downstream tapers). The unique geometric and traffic design elements of ATLs relate to the determination of their length and the use of signs and pavement markings. The upstream ATL length should be sufficiently long to accommodate the maximum back of queue on the approach (could be in the CTL or ATL) to ensure that the ATL remains accessible throughout the cycle. Page 10