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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 707 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidelines on the Use of Auxiliary Through Lanes at Signalized Intersections

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Spring, MD VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Michael P. Melaniphy, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of November 2011.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 707 Guidelines on the Use of Auxiliary Through Lanes at Signalized Intersections Brandon Nevers Hermanus Steyn Yuri Mereszczak Zach Clark KITTELSON & ASSOCIATES, INC. Reston, VA IN ASSOCIATION WITH Nagui Rouphail Joe Hummer Bastian Schroeder Zach Bugg NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND EDUCATION Raleigh, NC Jim Bonneson TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE College Station, TX Danica Rhodes WRITE RHETORIC Boise, ID Subscriber Categories Highways Operations and Traffic Management Planning and Forecasting Safety and Human Factors Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2011 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 707 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 03-98 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN 978-0-309-21375-2 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2011943520 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2011 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT INFORMATION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the research directly to those who are in a position to use them. researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 707 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Nanda Srinivasan, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 03-98 PANEL Field of Traffic--Area of Operations and Control Michael M. Christensen, McGregor, MN (Chair) James H. Dunlop, North Carolina DOT, Garner, NC Rashad M. Hanbali, City of Cape Coral, Cape Coral, FL Thomas Hicks, Maryland State Highway Administration, Hanover, MD Brent A. Sweger, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort, KY Michael L. Swires, Washington State DOT, Seattle, WA Zhongren Wang, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Deborah Curtis, FHWA Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS These guidelines were prepared as part of NCHRP Project 3-98, "Guidelines on the Use of Auxiliary Through Lanes at Signalized Intersections." The research team consisted of Brandon Nevers (principal investigator), Hermanus Steyn, Michael Houston, Yuri Mereszczak, Zach Clark, and Mark Vandehey (Kit- telson & Associates, Inc.); Nagui Rouphail (co-principal investigator), Joe Hummer, Bastian Schroeder, and Zach Bugg (North Carolina State University Institute of Transportation Research and Education); Jim Bonneson (Texas Transportation Institute), Danica Rhodes (Write Rhetoric), and data collection staff from Quality Counts. Several additional individuals contributed to the project. Mike Alston and Brendan Lehan of North Car- olina State University provided key contributions to the development of the operations and safety assess- ments. Sverine Marchal and Diego Franca of Kittelson & Associates, Inc. assisted with the survey and interim report. Ralph Bentley and Jon Sommerville assisted with exhibits and production of the guide- lines. Brian Ray, Lee Rodegerdts, and Paul Ryus of Kittelson & Associates, Inc. provided review and input in the development of the guidelines. The research team thanks each of the panel members for the valuable input, guidance, and support pro- vided throughout the project. Their contributions significantly enhanced the research products. The research team also appreciates the input provided by each of the survey respondents. This infor- mation provided the basis for the identification and selection of study ATL approaches that are the foun- dation for the guidelines produced from this project. The research team also thanks Jay Ring at the Uni- versity of Buffalo for supplying data collected at ATL sites in Buffalo, New York.

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FOREWORD By Nanda Srinivasan Staff Officer Transportation Research Board Lanes for through movements that begin upstream of a signalized intersection and end downstream of the intersection--auxiliary through lanes (ATLs)--are recognized as a moderate-cost approach to increase intersection and overall corridor capacity. NCHRP Report 707 provides guidelines to use for justification, design, and analysis of ATLs at sig- nalized intersections. The report is aimed to assist transportation professionals in the effec- tive and safe use of intersection auxiliary through lanes. Auxiliary through lanes (ATLs) at signalized intersections have been used throughout the United States. An ATL is a limited-length through lane added upstream and downstream of an intersection. Prior studies suggest that the length of auxiliary lanes beyond the intersec- tion is a significant factor affecting upstream lane usage and, therefore, the intersection capacity. However, the conditions for their effective use and their affect on operations, safety, and the site location were yet to be documented. This research provides a technical assessment for their use, documents their affect on operations and safety, and provides guidelines including design criteria and placement. The research was performed by Kittelson & Associates, Inc., in association with the Insti- tute for Transportation Research and Education (ITRE), Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), Write Rhetoric, and Quality Counts. Information was gathered via literature review and interviews with practitioners to inform the framework of the study. Data were collected from 22 ATL approaches across the United States. Statistical models were developed using field data to predict the amount of traffic expected to use the ATL. A safety study was con- ducted by examining 16 ATL approaches from eight intersections across the United States using a calibrated VISSIM model with FHWA's Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM). The guidelines are accompanied by a final report posted on the TRB website as NCHRP Web-Only Document 178: Assessment of Auxiliary Through Lanes at Signalized Intersections along with a spreadsheet-based computational engine posted on the project web page (http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=2492).

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Scope of the Guidelines 2 Limitations of the Guidelines 3 Organization of Guidelines 5 Recommended Resource Documents 7 Chapter 2 ATL Characteristics 7 Terminology 8 Application 8 Configuration Types 10 Traffic Operations 10 Safety 10 Geometric and Traffic Design 11 User Considerations 15 Chapter 3 Operational Analysis 16 Operational Principles 23 Data Collection Requirements 24 ATL Volume Estimation 27 Numerical Illustration of ATL Volume Prediction 29 Chapter 4 Safety 29 Safety Principles 30 Observed Safety Performance 35 Safety Evaluation Considerations 37 Chapter 5 Geometric and Traffic Design 37 Design Approach 43 Design Elements 55 Chapter 6 Sample Application 57 ATL Application Example Description 58 Operational Evaluation 62 Preliminary Horizontal Geometric Design 64 Summary 67 Chapter 7 References A-1 Appendix A A Simulation-Based Approach to ATL Evaluation B-1 Appendix B Computational Engine C-1 Appendix C Estimation of Design Lengths of ATL Components Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.