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In most cases, the fundamental elements of a com- CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE prehensive environmental sustainability program are RESEARCH NEEDS part of design and construction activities and could This synthesis has identified and quantified potentially be adjusted for application in pavement seven environmental sustainability impact factor preservation and maintenance operations. Table 16 areas: virgin material usage, alternative material suggests that the relationship between pavement usage, a program for pavement in-service monitoring monitoring of maintenance and preservation treat- and management, noise, air quality/emissions, ments and their direct relationship to environmen- water quality, and energy usage, which are of strate- tal sustainability is not currently fully developed. The gic importance to pavement preservation and main- mantra of the pavement preservation movement is tenance. A survey was conducted to evaluate how "put the right treatment, on the right road, at the environmental sustainability was being incorporated right time" (Galehouse et al. 2003). Overall, a robust into pavement preservation and maintenance. The pavement in-service monitoring and management results of the survey were coupled with information system is the foundation upon which the decisions found in the literature and eight case studies to iden- that ultimately impact the environment are made. tify trends, form conclusions, and locate gaps in the The conclusion argues that integration of environ- body of knowledge that require future research. mental sustainability metrics into agency pavement management information systems is necessary to maximize the ultimate environmental sustainabil- Conclusions ity of the pavement preservation and maintenance The following conclusions were reached in this program. study: 1. Environmental sustainability research that is Summary related specifically to post-construction oper- ations is an emerging field. This chapter summarized the case study findings 2. Thin asphalt overlays are the most prevalent and how the lessons learned could be leveraged into treatment for asphalt and composite pavements. future research. Overall, the current state of the prac- 3. Diamond grinding and joint sealing are the tice is characterized by a systems approach in that most commonly used treatments for concrete most of the information found was developed for pavements. design and construction. This is no criticism of the 4. Regrading and regraveling are the most preva- case study agencies. It is however validation of the lent treatments for graveled roads, whereas conclusions reached from the survey and literature chip seals are the preferred treatment for sur- review that most agencies are not connecting envi- face-treated roads. ronmental sustainability and pavement preservation 5. Quantification of environmental sustainabil- and maintenance. Consequently, if the environ- ity with pavement preservation and mainte- mental sustainability impact factor areas were to be nance programs is not commonly practiced in applied to pavement preservation and maintenance the United States and Canada. treatments, additional detailed guidelines and pro- 6. Various construction and design environmen- tocols would need to be developed. tal sustainability initiatives are available in the literature. However, an assessment tool to Conclusions properly quantify environmental sustainability The synthesis of the eight case studies led to the in the pavement preservation and maintenance following conclusions: context is required. 7. The case studies showed that environmental The case studies showed that environmental sustainability can be incorporated into pave- sustainability can be incorporated into pave- ment preservation and maintenance practices. ment preservation and maintenance practices. Environmental sustainability metrics could Future Research Needs be developed and integrated into pavement preservation and maintenance treatment The following future research needs have been programming. identified in this synthesis to assist practitioners in the 22