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quantification of environmental sustainability for Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., incorporation into pavement preservation and main- 2008, pp. 100103. tenance in the United States and Canada: Amekudzi, A. and C.M. Jeon, Evaluating Transport Sys- tems Sustainability: Atlanta Metropolitan Region, pre- 1. There is a need for pavement preservation sented at 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation and maintenance-specific research to furnish Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2125, 2007. agency pavement maintenance engineers with Ball, G.F.A., P.R. Harrington, and J.E. Patrick, Environ- the fundamental quantitative data on the rel- mental Effects of Emulsions, Land Transport New ative environmental sustainability of com- Zealand Research Report 343, New Zealand Trans- mon treatments. port Agency, Wellington, 2009, 47 pp. 2. There is a need to develop a pavement preser- Beatty, T.L., et al., Pavement Preservation Technology in vation and maintenance-specific life-cycle France, South Africa, and Australia, Report FHWA- assessment and cost analysis method that PL-3-001, Office of International Programs, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., and includes values for factors such as carbon American Trade Initiatives, Alexandria, Va., 2002, sequestration, resource renewability, and other 56 pp. salient elements of environmental sustainabil- Benson, C. and T. Edil, Quantifying the Benefits of Using ity to furnish a rational approach to treatment Coal Combustion Products in Sustainable Construc- selection. tion, EPRI, Palo Alto, Calif., 2009, 45 pp. 3. Research is needed to develop the fundamen- Bruntdland Commission--World Commission on Envi- tal information needed to prepare training to ronment and Development, Our Common Future, be disseminated throughout the two countries Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., 1987. that quantifies the importance of preservation Carpenter, A.C. and K.H. Gardner, Recycled Material and maintenance treatments in the environ- Highway Construction Environmental Assessment: mental sustainability impact factor areas. Life Cycle Based Risk Assessment of Recycled Materi- 4. There is a need to complete research in adapt- als in Roadway Construction, Final Report for RMRC ing recycled and alternate materials for use in Research Project No. 43, Aug. 2007, p. 12. Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, pavement preservation and maintenance "Noise," 2010a [Online]. Available: [Online] http:// treatments. 5. There is a need for future research to identify Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, and develop appropriate noise standards for "Air Quality," 2010b [Online]. Available: http://envi pavement preservation and maintenance operations and life-cycle assessment. Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, 6. There is a specific need for research to quan- "Water Quality/Wetlands," 2010c [Online]. Available: tify the contribution that crack sealing makes to environmental sustainability of all types of Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, pavement surfaces. "Sustainability," 2010d [Online]. Available: http:// 7. There is a need to research policies, tech- nology, materials, specifications, standards, sustainability. equipment, capacity building, recycling/waste CH2M Hill, Transportation and Sustainability Best Prac- tices Background, Proceedings, AASHTO Sustain- reduction, emissions reduction (air pollution), ability Peer Exchange, Washington, D.C., May 2009, and life-cycle cost analysis. In this regard, it is 32 pp. necessary to incorporate sustainable pavement Chaignon, F. and S. Mueller, Calculating CO2e Emis- maintenance elements into on-going and future sions?, A discussion with the PPETG, Scottsdale, pavement maintenance research. Ariz., Sep. 2009. Chan, P. and S. Tighe, Quantifying Pavement Sustain- ability in Economic and Environmental Perspective, REFERENCES CD-ROM, presented at the 88th Annual Meeting of Alkins, A., B. Lane, and T. Kazmierowski, "Sustainable the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Pavements Environmental, Economic, and Social Ben- Jan. 1115, 2009, 14 pp. efits of In Situ Pavement Recycling," Transportation Chan, P. and S. Tighe, Quantifying Pavement Sustainabil- Research Record: Journal of the Transportation ity, Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, Canada, Research Board, No. 2084, Transportation Research Apr. 2010, pp. 5. 23

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Chappat, M. and J. Bilal, Sustainable Development, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Envi- Environmental Road of the Future: Life Cycle ronmental Management--Life Cycle Assessment-- Analysis, Colas: the road forward, United Kingdom, Principles and Framework, ISO 14040, 2nd ed., Sep. 2003. Sep. 2006. Chehovitz, J. and L. Galehouse, "Energy Usage and Jahren, C., K. Kenneth, L. Bergeson, A. Al-Hammadi, S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Pavement Preservation Celik, and G. Lau, Thin Maintenance Surfaces, Phase Processed for Asphalt Concrete Pavements," Pro- One Report, Center for Transportation Research and ceedings of the 1st International Conference of Pave- Education, Iowa State University, Ames, Apr. 1999. ment Preservation, Newport Beach, Calif., Apr. 2010, James, A., "Overview of Asphalt Emulsion," Trans- pp. 2742. portation Research Circular E-C102, Transportation Denevillers, C., "Renewable Carbon-based Binders for Research Board of the National Academies, Wash- Pavement Preservation," Proceedings ISSA Annual ington, D.C., 2006, pp. 16. Conference, Sunny Isles, Fla., Mar. 2010, 31 pp. Jeon, C. and A. Amekudzi, "Addressing Sustainability in Economic InputOutput Life Cycle Assessment Transportation Systems: Definitions, Indicators, and (EIOLCA), Corporate Users, Economic Input Metrics," Journal of Infrastructure Systems, ASCE, Output Life Cycle Assessment, 2010 [Online]. Avail- Mar. 2005, pp. 3150. able: Johnson, N., T.J. Wood, and R.C. Olson, "Flexible Slurry- Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Action Pave- Microsurfacing System of Overlay Preparation," ment Preservation Definitions, FHWA, Washington, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the D.C., 2005 [Online]. Available: Transportation Research Board, No. 1989, Trans- gov/pavement/preservation/091205.cfm. portation Research Board of the National Academies, Galehouse, L., J.S. Moulthrop, and R.G. Hicks, "Princi- Washington, D.C., 2007, pp. 1826. ples for Pavement Preservation: Definitions, Bene- Kober, W.W., Strategies to Integrate Environmental fits, Issues, and Barriers," TR News, Sep./Oct. 2003, Stewardship into ADOT's Business, Arizona Depart- pp. 49. ment of Transportation, Phoenix, Vol. 1, Oct. 2004. Gardner, K. and S. Greenwood, Sustainable Highways Kober, W.W., The Road to Environmental Stewardship Through the Use of Carbon Sequestering Construction Via In-Place Pavement Recycling, Midwestern States Materials, Final Report for RMRC Research Project Regional In-Place Recycling Conference, Blooming- No. 35, Aug. 2008, 43 pp. ton, Minn., Aug. 2009. Geiger, D.R., Pavement Preservation Definitions, Federal Lane, B., "Go Green, Sustainable Pavements in Ontario," Highway Administration Memorandum, FHWA, OGRA's Milestones, Vol. 9, No. 1, Feb. 2009, Washington, D.C., Sep. 2005, p. 2. pp. 2730 [Online]. Available: Gransberg, D.D., "Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Surface lib/db2file.asp?fileid=24570 [accessed April 12, Retexturing with Shotblasting as a Pavement Preser- 2010]. vation Tool," Transportation Research Record: Jour- LEED, LEED Green Building Rating System for New nal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2108, and Major Renovations Version 1.0, Canada Green Transportation Research Board of the National Acad- Building Council, Ottawa, On, 2008. emies, Washington, D.C., Dec. 2009, pp. 4652. Manion, M. and S. Tighe, "Performance Specified Harmon, T., Sustainable Transportation, International Maintenance Contracts: Adding Value Through Sustainable Pavements Workshop, Virginia Tech/ Improved Safety Performance," Transportation Nottingham Transportation Engineering Center, Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Washington, D.C., Jan. 2010, p. 9. Research Board, No. 1990, Transportation Research Horvath, A., A Life-Cycle Analysis Model and Decision- Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., Support Tool for Selecting Recycled Versus Virgin 2008, pp. 7279. Materials for Highway Applications, Final Report Melton, J.S. and T. Morgan, Evaluation of Tests for for RMRC Research Project No. 23, Recycled Ma- Recycled Material Aggregates for Use in Unbound terials Resource Center, Durham, N.H., Mar. 2004, Application, Final Report for RMRC Project No. 6, p. 12. Recycled Materials Resource Center, Durham, N.H., Horvath, A., Pavement Life-cycle Assessment Tool for 1996, 18 pp. Environmental and Economic Effects, 2009 [Online]. Ministry of Transportation, Ontario's Transportation Available: Technology Transfer Digest, Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter palate.html [accessed Apr. 2, 2009]. 2010. Infraguide, Reuse and Recycling of Road Construction Minnesota Department of Transportation (MnDOT), and Maintenance Materials, Federation of Canadian Standard Specifications for Construction, MnDOT, Municipalities and National Research Council, 2005 St. Paul, 2005, 776 pp. 24