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quantification of environmental sustainability for Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., incorporation into pavement preservation and main- 2008, pp. 100103. tenance in the United States and Canada: Amekudzi, A. and C.M. Jeon, Evaluating Transport Sys- tems Sustainability: Atlanta Metropolitan Region, pre- 1. There is a need for pavement preservation sented at 86th Annual Meeting of the Transportation and maintenance-specific research to furnish Research Board, Washington, D.C., Jan. 2125, 2007. agency pavement maintenance engineers with Ball, G.F.A., P.R. Harrington, and J.E. Patrick, Environ- the fundamental quantitative data on the rel- mental Effects of Emulsions, Land Transport New ative environmental sustainability of com- Zealand Research Report 343, New Zealand Trans- mon treatments. port Agency, Wellington, 2009, 47 pp. 2. There is a need to develop a pavement preser- Beatty, T.L., et al., Pavement Preservation Technology in vation and maintenance-specific life-cycle France, South Africa, and Australia, Report FHWA- assessment and cost analysis method that PL-3-001, Office of International Programs, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., and includes values for factors such as carbon American Trade Initiatives, Alexandria, Va., 2002, sequestration, resource renewability, and other 56 pp. salient elements of environmental sustainabil- Benson, C. and T. Edil, Quantifying the Benefits of Using ity to furnish a rational approach to treatment Coal Combustion Products in Sustainable Construc- selection. tion, EPRI, Palo Alto, Calif., 2009, 45 pp. 3. Research is needed to develop the fundamen- Bruntdland Commission--World Commission on Envi- tal information needed to prepare training to ronment and Development, Our Common Future, be disseminated throughout the two countries Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K., 1987. that quantifies the importance of preservation Carpenter, A.C. and K.H. Gardner, Recycled Material and maintenance treatments in the environ- Highway Construction Environmental Assessment: mental sustainability impact factor areas. Life Cycle Based Risk Assessment of Recycled Materi- 4. There is a need to complete research in adapt- als in Roadway Construction, Final Report for RMRC ing recycled and alternate materials for use in Research Project No. 43, Aug. 2007, p. 12. Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, pavement preservation and maintenance "Noise," 2010a [Online]. Available: [Online] http:// treatments. environment.transportation.org/tools/print.aspx. 5. There is a need for future research to identify Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, and develop appropriate noise standards for "Air Quality," 2010b [Online]. Available: http://envi pavement preservation and maintenance ronment.transportation.org/tools/print.aspx. operations and life-cycle assessment. Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, 6. There is a specific need for research to quan- "Water Quality/Wetlands," 2010c [Online]. Available: tify the contribution that crack sealing makes http://environment.transportation.org/tools/print.aspx. to environmental sustainability of all types of Center for Environmental Excellence (CEE) by AASHTO, pavement surfaces. "Sustainability," 2010d [Online]. Available: http:// 7. There is a need to research policies, tech- environment.transportation.org/environmental_issues/ nology, materials, specifications, standards, sustainability. equipment, capacity building, recycling/waste CH2M Hill, Transportation and Sustainability Best Prac- tices Background, Proceedings, AASHTO Sustain- reduction, emissions reduction (air pollution), ability Peer Exchange, Washington, D.C., May 2009, and life-cycle cost analysis. In this regard, it is 32 pp. necessary to incorporate sustainable pavement Chaignon, F. and S. Mueller, Calculating CO2e Emis- maintenance elements into on-going and future sions?, A discussion with the PPETG, Scottsdale, pavement maintenance research. Ariz., Sep. 2009. Chan, P. and S. Tighe, Quantifying Pavement Sustain- ability in Economic and Environmental Perspective, REFERENCES CD-ROM, presented at the 88th Annual Meeting of Alkins, A., B. Lane, and T. Kazmierowski, "Sustainable the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., Pavements Environmental, Economic, and Social Ben- Jan. 1115, 2009, 14 pp. efits of In Situ Pavement Recycling," Transportation Chan, P. and S. Tighe, Quantifying Pavement Sustainabil- Research Record: Journal of the Transportation ity, Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, Canada, Research Board, No. 2084, Transportation Research Apr. 2010, pp. 5. 23

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