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INTRODUCTION Background Increasing societal awareness of the environ- Pavement infrastructure is critical to the quality of mental effects of constructing, operating, and main- life and prosperity of society. As the pavement struc- taining the highway infrastructure has led to new ture deteriorates over time, proper pavement preser- demands on transportation agencies to conduct vation and maintenance is necessary to achieve a their business in a more environmentally friendly, high-performing, safe, and cost-effective pavement or sustainable, fashion. One key approach is for network for the users. In a society where currently agencies to implement a pavement preservation resources and funding are limited, it is more impor- program; restoring pavements that are still in good tant than ever that transportation agencies seek ways condition and extending their service life. The to use these resources to maximize benefits as part FHWA considers pavement preservation as a pro- of daily operations. At the same time, attention to the active approach to maintaining highways. Pavement notion of environmental sustainability has become preservation and maintenance treatments usually more important to society. In general, environmen- provide the least expensive pavement manage- tal sustainability has been defined by the Bruntdland ment strategy available on a life-cycle cost basis Commission as "[meeting] the needs of the present (FHWA 2005). without compromising the ability of future genera- This synthesis is directed at benchmarking the cur- tions to meet their own needs" (Bruntdland Commis- rent state of the practice in usage and quantification of sion 1987). Recently, the FHWA defined sustainable pavement preservation and maintenance practices in transportation as "providing exceptional mobility and terms of environmental performance. "Sustainability" access in a manner that meets development needs in the synthesis refers to promoting environmen- without compromising the quality of life of future tally friendly practices that also provide technical generations. A sustainable transportation system is and economic benefits. The seven sustainability safe, healthy, affordable, renewable, operates fairly, impact factor areas evaluated are virgin material and limits emissions and the use of new and non- usage, alternative material usage, program for pave- renewable resources" (Harmon 2010). The basis of ment in-service monitoring and management, noise, environmental sustainability consists of the three air quality/emissions, water quality, and energy usage elements shown in Figure 1: economy, society, and and their relationship to typical pavement preserva- environment. Sustainable pavement preservation tion and maintenance practices. Information in the and maintenance are a subset of sustainable trans- synthesis examines all pavement types including portation where the impacts of the treatments on the asphalt, concrete, composite, surface-treated and economy, environment, and social equity are defined gravel roads, and pavements. and evaluated. It can also be evaluated according to the technical and economic effectiveness and the associated impacts on the natural environment (Jeon Synthesis Objective and Amekudzi 2005). It can be noted that a study of The objective of this synthesis is to identify and state departments of transportation (DOTs) indicated synthesize current sustainable pavement preservation and maintenance practices. The focus is on determin- ing what the current state of practice is in this area and also to identify needs for future research. The synthe- sis identified those agencies that are demonstrating efforts to quantify environmental performance and stewardship in maintenance and preservation and related areas. To assess the way that environmental sustainabil- ity relates to pavement maintenance, the methodol- ogy of this synthesis was to prepare a literature review, conduct a survey of practitioners and evaluate their responses, and assemble case studies from several Figure 1 Fundamental sustainability model exemplary programs. (CH2M Hill 2009). 3