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air quality/emissions for the equipment and were used to develop the conclusions and sugges- materials. Also considered would be the asso- tions presented in this synthesis. ciated impact the treatments have on the trav- elling public in terms of emissions associated Organization of the Report with traffic delays resulting from the treat- The information collected in this study is pre- ment placement. Part of the calculation of this sented as follows: factor would be the preventive maintenance treatment's service life. Summary of Literature Review and Survey and 6. Water quality evaluates the effects of Results transportation-related impacts associated Quantifying Environmental Sustainability in with alternative maintenance strategies and Pavement Preservation and Maintenance materials. Regulatory requirements relate to Case Studies the operation and maintenance of municipal Conclusions and Future Research Needs. storm sewer systems, storm water discharge associated with construction activities, and SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW effluent standards related to the total maxi- AND SURVEY AND RESULTS mum daily effluent discharge standards. Treatments and programs should be evalu- Introduction ated for their individual and collective effect This report employed the following major study on these resources (CEE 2010c). instruments: 7. Energy usage relates to the quantification of cumulative energy usage of the pave- A comprehensive literature review. ment preservation and maintenance treat- A survey of U.S. state DOTs and Canadian ment throughout the life cycle. Energy provincial transportation agencies. usage is important in its correlation to emis- Case study analyses of selected U.S., Cana- sions of greenhouse gases and their relation- dian, and one New Zealand sustainable pave- ship to climate change. ment preservation and maintenance programs. The structure and content of each of the instru- ments were integrated to identify trends in Study Approach the data. The approach used to complete the synthesis The literature found in sustainable transportation essentially relied on three independent sources of is largely about design, construction, and material information. The first was a comprehensive review selection. Very little information was found that was of the literature. An effort was made to obtain not specific to sustainable pavement preservation and only the most current information but also historical maintenance quantification. Most of the studies information, so that any changes over time could involved the comparison of specific pavement preser- also be properly described and documented. The vation and maintenance treatments, such as chip seal- second source of information included the survey ing or microsurfacing, to hot mix or portland cement responses of U.S. and Canadian maintenance engi- concrete overlays or rehabilitation. Although this neers employed by the state or provincial highway information is valuable, there is no single source of agencies. Finally, case studies based on both the sur- environmental sustainability data on the suite of veys and literature were included. Collectively, this commonly used pavement preservation and mainte- information was used to identify current gaps in the nance treatments. The Recycled Materials Resource state of the practice and identify how these gaps can Center's (RMRC) website (http://www.rmrc.unh. be addressed in future research. edu/) appears to have the most current and complete collection of highway environmental sustainability Protocol to Develop Conclusions and research. A search of that archive revealed that the Recommendations for Future Research majority of the research has been in the area of mate- The major factor in developing a conclusion was rial science and hazard analysis. RMRC Project No. the intersection of trends found in the literature, sur- 23 notes that: "We have not found publications on the vey, and case study documentation. All three tools environmental effects of the different maintenance 6