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activities" (Horvath 2004). This demonstrates that The case studies were identified after a review of environmental sustainability research that is related the available literature and responses to the survey, specifically to post-construction operations is an along with input and recommendations of candidates emerging field. Thus, the first conclusion reached in familiar to the synthesis panel. Although there is this synthesis is that there is an immediate need for limited available data and the field is relatively new, maintenance-specific research to provide agency case studies were found that highlight each of the pavement maintenance engineers with the fundamen- environmental factors tal data on the relative environmental sustainability of common treatments and preservation programs. Opportunities to Implement Sustainability A survey was issued to the state and provincial in Maintenance maintenance engineers in the United States and Canada (see web-only Appendixes A and B for The literature is rich with information on sustain- details). A general survey on sustainable pavement able practices that can and have been applied to highway design and construction, although not to preservation and maintenance practices provided 49 maintenance. Each study represents an opportunity responses from 42 U.S. state DOTs and 7 Canadian for maintenance engineers to potentially adopt aspects provincial ministries of transportation shown in Fig- of the sustainable practices in maintenance and preser- ure 2. This corresponds to an individual response rate vation. In other cases, the identified sustainable prac- of 84% for the United States and 70% for Canada. tices will likely need to be adapted or altered before The survey also received responses from three U.S. their use in pavement preservation and maintenance counties; however, the number of responses from applications. Table 1 consolidates the information nonstate-level agencies was small and they are not found in the literature and extends each study's result included in the analysis. This analysis separated the to possible pavement preservation and maintenance U.S. and Canadian responses to account for the dif- applications. In most cases, the possible application ference in the construction contracting regulatory was mentioned in the cited report or paper, and the environment that exists in both countries. Addition- mention took the form of a recommendation for addi- ally, information from the international agencies is tional research to validate the concept. The report by added as appropriate throughout the synthesis. Denevillers (2010) detailed actual field testing of Figure 2 Survey responses. 7
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Table 1 Alternative, recycled, and renewable highway design and construction literature review results Material/ Literature Possible Preservation Possible Maintenance Technique Cited Uses Uses Remarks Bio-fluxing Denevillers · Prime coat · Overlay tack coat Trade name is Vegeflux® Agent (2010) · Chip seals · Cold mix · Microsurfacing · Warm mix Bio-binder Denevillers · Chip seals · Cold in-place recycling Trade name is Vegecol® (2010) · Microsurfacing · Chip seals · Road marking Recycled Con- Gardner and · Whitetopping · Full-depth patching RCA acts to sequester crete Aggre- Greenwood · Partial-depth patching CO2 in addition to gate (RCA) (2008) recycling Recycled Glass Melton and · Untried · Unbound base courses Potential use on gravel Gravel Morgan roads (1996) Fly Ash MnDOT · Microsurfacing · Concrete maintenance Widely used in a variety (2005) mineral filler mixes of products · Slurry seal · Microsurfacing mineral filler Bottom Ash Carpenter and · Microsurfacing · Subase under gravel Gardner mineral filler surface (2007) Flue Gas Benson and · Microsurfacing · Concrete maintenance Desulpheriza- Edil (2009) mineral filler mixes tion Gypsum · Slurry seal mineral filler Kiln Dust MnDOT · Prime coat · Prime coat (2005) · Microsurfacing · Microsurfacing Baghouse Fines ISSA (2010) · Microsurfacing · Untried mineral filler · Slurry seal mineral filler Crushed Slag Chappat and · Chip seal · Special binder road Bilal (2003) aggregate mix Ultra-High Pidwerbesky · Restore macro- · Retexture chip sealed Uses no virgin material Pressure and Waters texture on chip roads prior to resealing and the sludge can be Water Cutter (2007) seals recycled as precoating for chip seal aggregates Shotblasting Transport · Restore micro- · Restore skid resistance Uses no virgin material Canada texture on on resealed PCC and the steel shot is (2003) polished HMA bridge decks recycled for reuse in and PCC the process pavements Recycled Motor Waters · Dust palliative · Otta seal as surface Motor oil is refined before Oil (2009) · Otta seals course use Recycled Tire Beatty et al. · Chip seals · Chip seals Also found to reduce road Rubber (2002) · Thin overlays · Thin overlays noise HMA = hot-mix asphalts; PCC = portland concrete cement. 8