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vegetable-based carbon emulsions. One of the prin- care of the infrastructure they already have. Therefore, ciples of environmental sustainability is to minimize influencing the environmental sustainability of pave- the use of nonrenewable resources. For example, the ment maintenance efforts within DOTs will have a use of a renewable bio-fluxing agent as a prime coat meaningful impact. Table 2 summarizes the survey was successfully demonstrated in Morocco, and also responses regarding the relative magnitude of pave- tested and used in chip seals on Route 960 in Saumur, ment preservation and maintenance programs in the France. The same is true for the bio-binder, which United States and Canada. In those agencies on the has been successfully applied in Canada and seven low end of the funding spectrum, the need for an European countries. Although it is not in the table, it aggressive pavement preservation program is criti- can be noted that it has successfully been used in cal to getting as much value out of each maintenance road marking paints in France and England. It can be dollar as possible (Galehouse et al. 2003; NHI 2007). noted that many of these treatments can be evaluated Pavement preservation promotes environmental sus- in the broader environmental sustainability context tainability because it seeks to minimize the amount as details in the literature were limited. of natural resources consumed over a pavement's life Table 1 illustrates that whereas fundamental cycle (FHWA 2005). Focusing on pavement preser- research has been done on enhancing highway envi- vation rather than reactive maintenance and repair ronmental sustainability through the use of recycled furnishes a broad foundation on which to build an materials, alternate materials, and green construction agency's pavement maintenance environmental sus- technologies, the information necessary to extend tainability program. these promising opportunities to pavement preserva- The survey contained a number of questions tion and maintenance must still be developed through designed to draw a relationship between agency pave- future research and field testing. Additionally, the eco- ment preservation and maintenance programs and nomic analyses contained in those reports are very environmental sustainability (Table 3). The conclu- rudimentary. A recent study found that the standard sion from these data is clear. Most agencies do not FHWA-approved life-cycle cost analysis method for consciously consider either environmental perfor- new construction is not easily applied to pavement mance or environmental sustainability when planning preservation projects (Pittenger 2010). As a result, rig- and conducting pavement preservation and mainte- orous research would be needed to apply a life-cycle nance activities. A comment on the Louisiana DOT's cost analysis algorithm that goes beyond merely look- ing at treatment construction costs and provides a rig- response accurately describes current state of the orous methodology to assign a value to such things as practice: "We are concerned about environmental carbon sequestration and resource renewability. sustainability but have no active program in pave- ment maintenance." The agencies that did indicate that some kind of pavement environmental sustainability Sustainability Within Agency program existed in their organizations were Ontario, Maintenance Programs Florida, Missouri, New York, and Texas. New York In recent years, transportation agencies have been and Ontario are detailed in the case studies in addition placing increasing importance on maintenance efforts; to providing some information from a few other agen- as funding becomes scarcer, it becomes critical to take cies. Note that some of these were not directly related Table 2 Summary of annual maintenance budgets from survey respondents Approximate Annual Maintenance Budget Range Low Average High Canada $2.8 million $99.0 million $276.4 million $US per lane-mile $1,127 $26,064 $51,054 % of 2009 Program 1.9% 15.9% 26.7% U.S. $15.0 million $278.5 million $1.7 billion $US per lane-mile $1,650 $15,669 $79,589 % of 2009 Program 1.4% 14.9% 33.4% 9