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Introduction 3 of the communication process. Collaboration and communication must continue through the implementation phase so that all parties understand system functions, benefits, and operational requirements. Chapter 2 is focused on facilitating a mutual understanding between airport executives regarding IT. The chapter highlights the perspectives of each of these executives and what they would like the others to understand. Common challenges that these executives face are discussed and solutions are suggested. 1.3 Guiding IT Principles Given the critical importance of IT infrastructure to the airport's successful operations, air- ports must establish a set of IT principles to guide IT investments and implementations. These principles, intended to be enduring and seldom changed, help make the IT environment as pro- ductive and cost-effective as possible. They should be developed jointly by the CIO, CEO, and stakeholder executives to align with airport strategic goals and visions. Chapter 3 contains a more detailed explanation of IT principles and provides sample principles that have been found use- ful by many organizations. 1.4 IT System Lifecycle One way of improving communication about IT is for all executives to understand and fol- low a common IT system lifecycle for managing a system from conception through design, implementation, and ongoing operations until the system is removed or replaced. Adhering to a deliberate, structured, and methodical process integrates people, data, and business systems from all areas of the airport. The result is a high-quality system that: Meets or exceeds customer expectations. Reaches completion within time and cost estimates. Works effectively and efficiently within established IT principles and infrastructure. Is cost-effective to operate and maintain. This primer organizes the IT system lifecycle into four key phases to make it easy for readers to grasp: 1. Strategic planning 2. Planning 3. Implementation 4. Operations and maintenance Chapter 4 describes the activities performed and the outputs of each phase in the IT system lifecycle. Sample outlines of recommended system lifecycle documentation are provided in Appendix A. 1.5 Evaluating IT Systems Chapter 5 outlines a four-step methodology for evaluating IT systems and making IT invest- ment decisions. The four steps are: 1. Documenting system benefits 2. Determining total lifecycle costs (TLC) 3. Performing a costbenefit analysis 4. Scoring system values objectively