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The IT System LifecycleA Common Process 37 Table 3-3. System planning phase checklist. checklist for ensuring that all the necessary activities have been completed and the appropriate documents created during the system planning phase. 3.4 Implementation Phase The implementation phase, which involves all efforts to manage, design, acquire, and deploy a new system, has four sequential activities, depicted in Figure 3-5. 3.4.1 Project Planning The main challenge of project planning is to stay within all project constraints (time, budget, and scope) while achieving the desired goals. A critical tool developed at this stage is the project management plan, which serves as a guide for implementing the project methodically from start to finish. Project management plan. Guides all aspects of the implementation phase. Delineates how App the internal project team will be organized, breaks down activities and tasks to be carried out, end ix estimates the level of effort and funds required to complete each task, and provides detailed A task schedules. Every project plan should: Define scope and objectives clearly. Define deliverables. Create a detailed breakdown of each task from start to finish. Identify the schedule for each task and dependencies among tasks. Identify resources required to complete the project. Estimate costs for each task involved in the project. Discuss project communication channels. Discuss risk management. For larger projects, several associated plans may be needed. Following is a list of plans for the project manager to consider developing in addition to the PMP. Resource plan. Identifies and allocates the resources needed to complete activities in the proj- ect plan. The resource plan should include people's roles and responsibilities, type and quantity of resources required (e.g., labor, equipment, and materials), and equipment specifications.

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38 Information Technology Systems at AirportsA Primer Implementation Project Planning Project Charter Project Management Plan Design System Specification Procurement Documentation Procurement Contract Deployment Service Level System Agreements (SLAs) Documentation Figure 3-5. Implementation phase. Quality management plan. Defines quality expectations and clear quality goals for each deliverable and discusses the resources responsible for ensuring adherence to the plan. Risk management plan. Identifies all anticipated project risks and how they will be mitigated before the project is implemented. Acceptance plan. Outlines acceptance criteria indicating what is required for each deliverable to be successfully completed. This plan provides a schedule of acceptance reviews, giving stakeholders the opportunity to formally accept the original requirements. Communications plan. Establishes methods and procedures for informing stakeholders of project progress; includes the types of information to be distributed as well as the methods and frequency of distribution. Procurement plan. Describes the products to be acquired, outlines the product delivery schedule, and establishes the process for selecting vendors and procuring products. 3.4.2 Design Once the PMP has been approved, system design activities can begin, including developing system specifications and completing procurement documentation (if the system is to be acquired). Using the basic requirements agreed to during system planning and documented in the system definition, system designers must articulate detailed application requirements, functional require- ments, performance requirements, and system integration requirements. Collecting detailed, accu- rate requirements may require multidisciplinary teams with representatives from multiple organi-

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The IT System LifecycleA Common Process 39 zations. All stakeholders must agree on the system's functionality and performance requirements. The outputs of this stage include the following: System specification. Accurately and clearly defines the system's full attributes, functionality, App and performance requirements. System specifications help to: end ix Establish agreement among planners, customers, and suppliers about how the system meets A the requirements. Provide a baseline for validating and verifying the system. Facilitate transfer of the system to its owners and users. Serve as a basis for later enhancements. Areas that should be addressed in the system specification include: Expected functionality. External interfaces. Performance metrics. Security requirements. Environmental requirements. Attributes of the system (portability, maintainability, business rules, etc.). Specific design constraints (equipment to be used, standards, etc.). Acceptance criteria or test scenarios. The system specification is the key document included in procurement documentation given to potential suppliers to define the requirements they are to meet. These requirements must be clearly stated and agreed on by all stakeholders before the system specification is released for procurement. Procurement documentation. When seeking competitive bids, be sure the procurement pack- age has all necessary elements and is advertised appropriately to ensure adequate responses. Among items to include in the procurement package are: Procurement instructions and schedule. Proposal format requirements. Pricing format requirements. Vendor qualification and reference requirements. Statement of work for the vendor to accomplish. Bid evaluation criteria and selection methodology. A sample of the contract to be signed. A detailed system specification. A draft SLA. Minority business enterprise/disadvantaged business enterprise (MBE/DBE) objectives. Bond requirements (bid and performance). The complexity and level of detail of procurement documents should be consistent with the value and risks of the system being procured. Procurement documents should be rigid enough to solicit consistent responses from proposers so that fair evaluations of the solutions can be made. 3.4.3 Procurement The procurement process begins after the system specification and procurement documents are released to potential suppliers, who must be given adequate time to develop the required proposals and documentation. It is an intricate process that demands attention both to the time period allowed and solutions received to ensure that selection criteria are applied evenly. When seeking competitive bids, be sure the procurement package contains all necessary ele- ments and is advertised appropriately to ensure adequate responses. Strong attention must be given to local procurement rules and laws to ensure the process is fair. The culmination of this

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40 Information Technology Systems at AirportsA Primer stage is the signing of a contract--the binding agreement between the firm selected to imple- ment the system and the airport. The proposed contract is often included in the procurement package to allow review by prospective respondents before they submit a legally binding response. Contract details vary between jurisdictions and airports, but standard features to include are: Schedule. Pricing and payment terms. Termination clauses. Indemnification and limitation of liability clauses. Insurance and performance bond requirements. Conflict of interest disclosure. Statement of nondiscrimination. MBE/DBE objectives. Acceptance criteria. Service level agreement and penalty clauses. Warranty and product support needs. To these features, a statement of work is appended that specifies requirements the vendor must meet, including: Project management. Schedule. Reporting. Shipping. Installation. Testing. System cutover. Training. Operations and maintenance. Documentation (project management, system, user, administrator, training). System specification. When the procurement process is completed, the PMP must be updated to reflect revisions to cost, scope, or schedule resulting from contract negotiations with the selected vendor. 3.4.4 Deployment Deploying the system, the most complex task in the IT system lifecycle, is the culmination of the previous planning and documentation tasks, and it validates that all tasks have been completed correctly. Important steps in this phase include: Building the project team. Coordinating people and resources associated with the project. Monitoring progress. Loading necessary data from old systems. Identifying and correcting issues. Training end users and maintenance personnel. Monitoring contract performance (if the system has been procured from an outside vendor). Defining completion and acceptance criteria. Performing acceptance testing to ensure that the final product complies with specifications and requirements. Carrying out an operational readiness review to ensure that all logistical elements for operating and maintaining the system are in place (e.g., spares, consumables, staff, help desk).