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ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 59 Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2011 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS James Wilding CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Consultant, Silver Springs, MD Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (re- VICE CHAIR: Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson tired) EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board VICE CHAIR MEMBERS Jeff Hamiel MinneapolisSt. Paul J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Metropolitan Airports Commission Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA MEMBERS William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles James Crites Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh DallasFort Worth International Airport James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, TX Richard de Neufville Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael W. Hancock, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, Frankfort Kevin C. Dolliole Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Unison Consulting John K. Duval Michael P. Lewis, Director, Rhode Island DOT, Providence Austin Commercial, LP Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Kitty Freidheim Joan McDonald, Commissioner, New York State DOT, Albany Freidheim Consulting Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington Steve Grossman Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Regional General Manager, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Jacksonville Aviation Authority Tom Jensen Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA National Safe Skies Alliance Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Catherine M. Lang Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and CEO, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Federal Aviation Administration David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Gina Marie Lindsey Lawrence A. Selzer, President and CEO, The Conservation Fund, Arlington, VA Los Angeles World Airports Carolyn Motz Kumares C. Sinha, Olson Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Airport Design Consultants, Inc. Lafayette, IN Richard Tucker Thomas K. Sorel, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, St. Paul Huntsville International Airport Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Paula P. Hochstetler Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI Airport Consultants Council C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Sabrina Johnson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Richard Marchi Airports Council International--North America J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Laura McKee Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA Air Transport Association of America Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Henry Ogrodzinski National Association of State Aviation Officials LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Melissa Sabatine Interior, Washington, DC American Association of Airport Executives John T. Gray, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Robert E. Skinner, Jr. Washington, DC Transportation Research Board John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC SECRETARY David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Christopher W. Jenks Michael P. Melaniphy, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Barry R. Wallerstein, Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Gregory D. Winfree, Acting Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of July 2011. *Membership as of November 2011.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 59 Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer John Purnell Ruth Hough FAITH GROUP, LLC St. Louis, MO Robert White Sandra Gonzalez Frank Haley Matt Hyde HAS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION Houston, TX Jim Willis Gerard de Grandis John Walfish CONVERGENT STRATEGIES CONSULTING, INC. Chadds Ford, PA Subscriber Categories Aviation Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP REPORT 59 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- Project 01-12 portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- ISSN 1935-9802 national commerce. They are where the nation's aviation system ISBN 978-0-309-21376-9 connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- Library of Congress Control Number 2011944294 sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- COPYRIGHT INFORMATION tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously to meet demands placed on it. published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- the material, request permission from CRP. gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, NOTICE and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision Governing Board of the National Research Council. 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. they are considered essential to the object of the report. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and Published reports of the selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP are available from: project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board Business Office intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 59 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 01-12 PANEL Field of Administration John Newsome, Greater Orlando Aviation Authority, Orlando, FL (Chair) Frank Barich, Barich, Inc., Chandler, AZ James C. DeLong, Capital Improvement...1904, LLC, Castle Rock, CO Dominic A. Nessi, Los Angeles World Airports, Los Angeles, CA Carl E. Remus, Tulsa Airport Authority, Tulsa, OK David Ruch, Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paul L. Friedman, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airports Council International North America Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison

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FOREWORD By Michael R. Salamone ACRP Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 59: Information Technology Systems at Airports--A Primer provides insights and advice to help airport executives and information technology (IT) professionals plan for and communicate about information technology at airports. The report offers techniques for both groups to identify critical issues and thereby communicate effectively, articulates sound IT principles for implementing new IT systems using a standard IT system lifecycle process for their airport, describes the benefits and value of various IT systems when formu- lating airport strategic goals and making financial investment decisions, and helps clarify mutual understanding of the fundamental architecture concepts of IT systems as they relate to airport goals. This primer is based on the knowledge, expertise, opinions, and recommendations of airport executives, IT professionals, and other airport industry practitioners collected through focus group discussions, online surveys, interviews, and case studies. In addition to proven techniques and tools applied at some airports, the primer provides innovative solutions for common IT issues. Occasionally, airport executives do not fully understand how to place a value on infor- mation systems and technology when making resource allocation decisions, and likewise IT professionals frequently have a difficult time communicating and justifying the business benefits of newer technologies to executive management. This creates a dilemma of sorts, and as a result, airports tend to lag behind private industry in the strategic use of technology to improve business operations and financial performance. Today, IT is a core component of nearly all processes at the airport. A change is occur- ring in business processes at airports, where the airport is becoming a fully involved service provider in the daily operation of all airport activities, including tenant activities. With IT applications, airports are offering more comprehensive services to their tenants and cus- tomers in the normal course of doing business. Notwithstanding, airports do not always know how to tailor information systems and technology to best support their own opera- tions, let alone those of their tenants. Airports sometimes experience problems such as cost overruns, underperformance, implementation delays, internal disputes, poor reliability, unanticipated collateral impacts, and failure to consider integration when implementing new IT applications. Through ACRP Project 01-12, Faith Group, LLC, developed a user-friendly management tool to facilitate airport executives' and IT professionals' mutual understanding and help them work together more effectively on IT projects, leading to better performance and reli- ability of IT systems and fewer cost overruns and delays during system implementation.

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Purpose of the Primer 1 1.2 The Communication Triangle 3 1.3 Guiding IT Principles 3 1.4 IT System Lifecycle 3 1.5 Evaluating IT Systems 4 1.6 IT Systems Architecture 4 1.7 Checklists A Common Management Tool 4 1.8 IT Vocabulary 6 Chapter 2 The IT Communication Triangle--Solving IT Issues 6 2.1 The Challenges of Communicating About IT 6 2.2 CEOCIO Communication 15 2.3 CIOStakeholder Communication 24 2.4 CEOStakeholder Communication 29 Chapter 3 The IT System Lifecycle--A Common Process 29 3.1 Introduction 30 3.2 Strategic Planning 32 3.3 System Planning Phase 37 3.4 Implementation Phase 41 3.5 Operations and Maintenance Phase 44 Chapter 4 Guiding IT Principles for Airports--A Common Framework 44 4.1 Sample IT Principles 49 Chapter 5 Evaluating IT Investments--A Common Decision Tool 49 5.1 A Process for Valuing IT Systems 49 5.2 Documenting System Benefits 50 5.3 Determining Total Lifecycle Costs 50 5.4 CostBenefit Analysis 53 5.5 Scoring Systems 55 Chapter 6 IT System Architecture--A Common Understanding 55 6.1 A Layered Architecture 59 Appendix A Example Document Outlines 70 Appendix B Airport Systems 88 Appendix C Airport and IT Acronyms and Abbreviations 97 References Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.