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41 REFERENCES 1. ACI 548.5R: Guide for Polymer Concrete Overlays, 14.ASTM C1583, Standard Test Method for Tensile Strength American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich., of Concrete Surfaces and the Bond Strength or Tensile Jan. 1994, Reapproved 1998, 26 pp. Strength of Concrete Repair and Overlay Materials by Direct Tension (Pull-off Method), ASTM, West Con- 2. ACI 548.8: Specification for Type EM (Epoxy Multi- shohocken, Pa. Layer) Polymer Overlay for Bridge and Parking Garage Decks, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, 15.Sprinkel, M.M., "Nineteen Year Performance of Polymer Mich., Oct. 2007, 9 pp. Concrete Bridge," In-Place Performance of Polymer Concrete Overlays, ACI Special Publication No. 169, 3. Furr, H.L., Synthesis of Highway Practice 109: Highway 1997, pp. 4274. Uses of Epoxy with Concrete, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 16.Sprinkel, M.M., "Performance of Multiple Layer Poly- 1984, 68 pp. mer Concrete Overlays on Bridge Decks," Polymers in Concrete: Advances and Applications, ACI Special Pub- 4. Sprinkel, M.M., "Twenty-Five-Year Experience with lication No. 116, 1989, pp. 6195. Polymer Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays," Polymers in Concrete: The First Thirty Years, ACI Special Publica- 17.Sprinkel, M.M., "Polymer Concrete Bridge Overlays," tion No. 214, 2003, pp. 5162. Transportation Research Record 1392, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washing- 5. Ohama, Y., Bibliography on Polymers in Concrete, 3rd ton, D.C., 1993, pp. 107116. ed., International Congress on Polymers in Concrete, 2007. 18.Dimmick, F.E., Sr., "Premixed Epoxy Polymer Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays," In-Place Performance of Poly- 6. AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Task Force 34, Guide Specifi- mer Concrete Overlays, ACI Special Publication No. 169, cation for Polymer Concrete Bridge Deck Overlays, 1997, pp. 146171. AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 1995. 19.ASTM D3042-09, Standard Test Method for Insoluble 7. Harper, J., Investigations of Failures of Epoxy Polymer Residue in Carbonate Aggregates, ASTM, West Con- Overlays in Missouri, Missouri Department of Transpor- shohocken, Pa. tation, Jefferson City, Nov. 2007, 22 pp. 20.ASTM C579, Standard Test Methods for Compressive 8. Carter, P.D., "Thin Polymer Wearing Surfaces for Pre- Strength of Chemical-Resistant Mortars, Grouts, Mono- ventive Maintenance of Bridge Decks," Polymer Con- lithic Surfacings, and Polymer Concretes, ASTM, West crete, ACI Special Publication No. 137, 1993, pp. 2948. Conshohocken, Pa. 9. White, D. and R. Montani, "Thin-Bonded Polymer Con- 21.Zalatimo, J.H., Analysis, Design, Construction, and crete Overlays for Exposed Concrete Bridge Deck Pro- Durability of Polymer Concrete Overlays, Ph.D. disserta- tection and Maintenance," In-Place Performance of tion, University of Texas, Austin, 1993. Polymer Concrete Overlays, ACI Special Publication No. 169, 1997, pp. 99106. 22.Zalatimo, J.H. and D.W. Fowler, "5-Year Performance of Overlays in Fort Worth, Texas," In-Place Performance of 10.ASTM D638, Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plas- Polymer Concrete Overlays, ACI Special Publication No. tics, ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa. 169, 1997, pp. 122145. 11.Gaul, R.W., "Epoxy Asphalt Concrete--A Polymer Con- 23.ASTM D570, Standard Test Method for Water Absorption crete with 25 Years' Experience," Properties and Uses of of Plastics, ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa. Polymers in Concrete, ACI Special Publication No. 166, 1996, pp. 233251. 24.ASTM D4060, Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resis- tance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser, ASTM, 12.Fontana, J.J., W. Reams, W. Scannell, and M.M. Sprin- West Conshohocken, Pa. kel, Electrically Conductive Polymer Concrete Overlay as Secondary Anode for Cathodic Protection, FHWA- 25.AASHTO T277-07, Standard Method of Test for Electrical RD-90-005, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Indication of Concrete's Ability to Resist Chloride Ion N.Y., May 1990, 61 pp. Penetration, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 2007. 13.ACI 503R, Use of Epoxy Compounds with Concrete, 26.ASTM C876, Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Appendix A--Test Methods, American Concrete Institute, Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete, ASTM, West Farmington Hills, Mich., Reapproved 2008, 28 pp. Conshohocken, Pa.

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42 27.Meinheit, D.F. and W.H. Riesterer, "Performance of Thin 38.ASTM E274, Standard Test Method for Skid Resistance of Methyl-Methacrylate Polymer Concrete (MMA) Overlay Paved Surfaces Using a Full-Scale Tire, ASTM, West in a Post-Tensioned Parking Garage," In-Place Perfor- Conshohocken, Pa. mance of Polymer Concrete Overlays, ACI Special Pub- 39.Bognacki, Casimir, "LaGuardia Airport Polymer Con- lication No. 169, 1997, pp. 1841. crete Overlay," Port Authority of New York and New Jer- 28.ASTM D3633, Test Method for Electrical Resistivity of Mem- sey, 1998. brane-Pavement Systems, ASTM, West Conshohocken, Pa. 40.Choi, D., D.W. Fowler, and D.L. Wheat, "Thermal Stresses 29.ASTM E524, Standard Specification for Standard Smooth in Polymer Concrete Overlays," Properties and Uses of Tire for Pavement Skid-Resistance Tests, ASTM, West Polymers in Concrete, ACI Special Publication No. 166, Conshohocken, Pa. 1996, pp. 93122. 30.ASTM C666, Standard Test Method for Resistance of 41.Letsch, R.H., "Polymer Mortar Overlay--Measurement Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing, ASTM, West of Stresses," ICPIC '87: The Production Performance Conshohocken, Pa. and Potential of Polymers in Concrete, 5th International Congress, Brighton, England, Sep. 2224, 1987, pp. 31.Nabar, S. and P. Mendis, "Experience with Epoxy Poly- 119126. mer Concrete Bridge Deck Thin Overlays in Service for Over 10 Years," In-Place Performance of Polymer Con- 42.A hn, N. and D.W. Fowler, "Effects of Metallic Monomers crete Overlays, ACI Special Publication No. 169, 1997, on the Bond Strength of Polymer Concrete to Wet Sub- pp. 117. strates," 9th International Congress on Polymers in Con- crete: ICPIC '98, Bologna, Italy, Sep. 1418, 1998, pp. 32.Maass, J.E., "I-80--It's Almost a Decade," Place Perfor- 199216. mance of Polymer Concrete Overlays, ACI Special Pub- lication No. 169, 1997, pp. 172179. 43.Sprinkel, M.M., D.S. Roosevelt, G.W. Flintsch, E. Izeppi, and D.W. Mokarem, Evaluation of the Cargill SafelaneTM 33.K rauss, P.D., "Status of Polyester-Styrene Resin Con- Surface Overlay, VTRC 09-R8, Virginia Transportation crete Bridge Deck and Highway Overlays in California," Research Council, Charlottesville, Jan. 2009. 43rd Annual Conference SPI Composites Institute Inc., Feb. 15, 1988. 44.Meggers, D., Unpublished report, Kansas Department of Transportation, Topeka, 2009. 34.Dimmick, F.E., Sr., "15-Year Tracking Study: Comparing Epoxy Polymer Concrete to Portland Cement Concrete 45.Specification for Type ES (Epoxy Slurry) Polymer Over- Applied on Slab-on-Grade and Bridge Decks," Proper- lay for Bridge and Parking Garage Decks, ACI Standard, ties and Uses of Polymers in Concrete, ACI Special Pub- Reported by ACI Committee 548, ACI 548.9-08, Ameri- lication No. 166, 1996, pp. 211231. can Concrete Institute, Farmington, Hills, Mich., 2008. 35.Wilson, D.L. and E.H. Henley, Thin Polymer Bridge Deck 46.ASTM D4263, Test Method for Indicating Moisture in Overlays: WSDOT's 10 Year Evaluation, WA-RD 374.1, Concrete by the Plastic Sheet Method, ASTM, West Con- Washington State Department of Transportation, Lacey, shohocken, Pa. Feb. 1995, 100 pp. [Online]. Available: http://www.wsdot. 47.Hsu, H., D.W. Fowler, M. Miller, and D.R. Paul, An Inves- wa.gov/research/reports/fullreports/374.1.pdf. tigation of the Use of Polymer-Concrete Overlays for 36.Doody, M.E., and R. Morgan, Polymer-Concrete Bridge- Bridge Decks, FHWA/TX-79/36+114-7, CFHR 3-9-71- Deck Overlays, FHWA/NY/SR-93/110, Engineering 114-7, Center for Highway Research, The University of Research and Development Bureau, State Campus, Albany, Texas at Austin, March 1979, 146 pp. N.Y., June 1993, 48 pp. [Online]. Available: http://ntl.bts. 48.Carter, P.D., "A Procedure for Determining Performance gov/lib/21000/21100/21137/PB99100349.pdf. of Thin Polymer Overlays on Alberta Bridge Decks," In- 37.New York State Department of Transportation (NYS- Place Performance of Polymer Concrete Overlays, ACI DOT), Field Trip Report on Thin Polymer Overlays, Special Publication No. 169, 1997, pp. 107121. NYSDOT, Albany, Unpublished report, 2007.