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One difficulty, according to the manager, is the Funding. The estimated cost to maintain the state- slow project development process that can take wide park and ride lots is $500,000 over a 2-year several years before a new facility is constructed and period. This includes maintenance of the NOVA lots. opened. Another difficulty is the absence of consistent The administrative costs of the program are not known. and long-term funding. The program must compete They are comingled with other department costs and with other state and regional transportation priorities not identified as line items. during a period of acute budget cuts and shortages. Virginia DOT relies on a mix of federal, state, To overcome this, the manager coordinates early in and local funds for its capital program. The federal the project prioritization and funding process with funds are primarily FHWA CMAQ and STP. State local jurisdictions, transit agencies, and the MPO. funds are from the State Transportation Trust Fund The manager believes the program can be repli- and used as local match. The Trust Fund draws from cated by other state DOTs; however, he notes that, four revenue sources: to ensure the highest efficiency, facilities should be located near HOV and transit services. Motor fuels tax. Federal aid highway grants. Staffing. The program is managed by one position, a Motor vehicle sales and use tax. Senior Transportation Planning Engineer who dedi- Virginia sales and use tax. cates 50 to 60 percent of his time to the program. His For the current biennial, there is a $53.3 million responsibilities include: shortfall in the Virginia DOT budget resulting from Maintaining the regional park and ride reductions in Trust Fund revenues. Reductions are in inventory. key areas such as transportation planning and research, Coordinating with VDOT headquarters, local highway system acquisitions, and construction. The jurisdictions, transit agencies, and the MPO. shortfalls also affect other state agencies such as DRPT Identifying future needs and incorporating park and are expected to continue into future years. As and ride priorities into the region's Six-Year mentioned by the manager, these reductions and un- Work Program and STIP. certainties lessen Virginia DOT's ability to match Marketing the program and educating the federal grants and hamper efforts to expand and public on space availability. develop the park and ride/intermodal commuter Identifying potential locations and participating system. in the design of new lots. The local funds that support park and ride facil- ities are from the budgets and general funds of local The district does not have an operating or main- governments and transit agencies. tenance budget for its park and ride program. The manager directs the resources of the district's main- Programmed Projects. A review of the NOVA tenance, engineering, permitting, and planning staff on an as-needed basis. FY1116 Six-Year Improvement Program shows $49 million is programmed for park and ride/ intermodal commuter facilities. The federal share-- Policy and Program Elements. The growth and composed of CMAQ and STP funds--represents development of the NOVA program is controlled by regional stake holders within the district. They include $33.7 million. The non-federal share--composed of the cities, counties, transit agencies, and the MPO. state and local contributions--represents $15.1 mil- According to the manager, the need for the park and lion. This is shown in Table 7. ride facility is determined first. If demand can be quantified and a feasible location is found, funding 1. B Public Authority and District Programs availability is determined. When the region's alloca- tions of FHWA STP funds and/or other fund sources The park and ride/intermodal commuter programs are identified, the stake holders must agree to use the of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART), the funds for the proposed park and ride. Once the agree- Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD), the ment is reached, the project is included in the district's Maine Turnpike Authority (MTA) and the Phoenix Six-Year Work Program and then programmed to Valley Metro Regional Public Transit Authority the STIP. (RPTA) are summarized here. 14

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Table 7 Virginia Department of Transportation Northern District Six-Year Work Program--FY1116 programmed park and ride/intermodal commuter facility projects (not including transit agency projects). Federal Federal Non-Federal Non-Federal Park and Ride Project Location Total Cost Source Share Source Share CMAQ $6,603,000 Route 234: 400-450 Space Prince William Primary 183,000 $8,744,000 VDOT Match $1,757,000 Commuter P&R Lot County Formula STP-Reg 200,000 Route 234: Park and Ride Prince William 8,915,000 None 0 VDOT Partnership 8,915,000 Lot Expansion County Route 617: Backlick Road-- North Park and Ride Fairfax County 4,294,000 CMAQ 3,355,000 Local Contribution 939,000 Facility Route 643: Construct Park Local Contribution 836,000 - Local Loudoun County 7,779,000 CMAQ 6,751,000 and Ride Facility VDOT Match 193,000 - VDOT Eastern Loudoun: Park and Loudoun County 885,000 CMAQ 708,000 VDOT Match 177,000 Ride Lot Engineering Proving Grounds: Saratoga Park Fairfax County 3,000,000 CMAQ 2,400,000 VDOT Match 600,000 and Ride Facility Herndon: Monroe Park Fairfax County 5,144,000 CMAQ 4,640,000 None and Ride Lot None Edwards Ferry Road: Lease of 150-Space Park and Ride Leesburg 765,000 CMAQ 605,000 VDOT Match 160,000 Lot Lowes Island: Lease 56,000 VDOT Match Loudoun County 280,000 None 280,000 Commuter Parking Spaces 224,000 STP-Regional Springfield: CBD Fairfax County 9,250,000 CMAQ 8,000,000 VDOT Match 1,250,000 Commuter Parking TOTAL $49,056,000 $33,725,000 $15,107,000 Source: Virginia Department of Transportation FY20112016 Six-Year Improvement Program. 1. B.1 Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) 24 percent of the spaces are free to the public. 17 percent of the spaces are monthly and daily BART is an independent agency created by the reserved permit parking. California legislature to provide interurban rapid transit in the metropolitan area surrounding the 3 percent of the spaces are for BART San Francisco Bay. The district manages a 104-mile, employees. 43-station system within the counties of Alameda, 2 percent of the spaces are fee spaces for the Contra Costa, San Francisco, and San Mateo. It has disabled and handicapped. a nine-member board of directors. The program generates $12 million in revenue each year in parking fees. Overview. The BART Parking Program was estab- Commuter amenities include lighting, security, lished in 1971. Unlike most of the programs surveyed, bicycle parking, walkways, shelters, and benches. demand for BART parking is acute, representing a Users may also use the E-Z Rider Card which facil- 95 percent average occupancy. The program charges itates access to parking and transit services. There parking fees, ranging from $30 to $115 per month. are no retail services. Attempts were made to pro- There are 46,000 spaces in 32 lots. Two of the lots vide video, laundry, and coffee services but they did are leased from Caltrans. not generate interest. BART is considering a car 55 percent of the spaces are fee spaces. The wash and detailing service. Reserved spaces for district charges a fee for their use. car pools and van pools are also being considered, as 15

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well as a smart phone application for real-time track- Local Funds ing of train schedules. Bridge Tolls. According to the manager, success of the program County Sales Tax. is measured by public reaction. On a weekly basis, he says, the program services 250,000 vehicles and BART Funds receives less than 20 complaints. The manager reports Parking and Passenger Revenue. that the parking permit system and E-Z Rider card are also indicators of success. In the rare case of an Programmed Projects. The most significant BART underutilized lot, the BART marketing department park and ride/intermodal commuter projects listed in promotes the lot to the public and offers free parking. the 2035 Plan are: Improve capacity at 43 BART stations-- Staffing. The park and ride program is managed $32.5 million. by two full time equivalent positions, Parking Ad- Expand Union City Station to create inter- ministrator and Manager of the Customer Access modal rail station--$21.0 million. Department. Establish express bus service and e-BART support network, including park and ride lots-- Policy and Program Elements. To ensure scheduled $21.7 million. and reliable bus access to and from its parking, BART Extend BART from Fremont to Warm Springs, coordinates quarterly with its transit operators: Contra including 2,040 parking spaces--$890 million. Costa, AC Transit, and the MTA. When public funds are needed for facility improvements or expansions, BART participates in a collaborative process defined 1. B.2 Denver Regional Transportation by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission District (RTD) (MTC), which is the MPO and the designated FTA The Denver RTD was created by the Colorado grant recipient. BART capital projects are ranked General Assembly as a political subdivision "to and prioritized along with other regional projects, develop, maintain, and operate a public mass trans- then listed in the Transportation 2035 Plan for the portation system for the benefit of the inhabitants of San Francisco Bay Area, which is the blueprint for the District" (Colorado Statute: Title 32: Special the region's capital plans. District, Article 9: Regional Transportation District The program's shortfalls, according to the Act. Section 32-9-107: Mass Transportation System, manager, are the shortage of parking spaces, the lack August 25, 2009, p. 10). The district encompasses of staff to develop the car pool and van pool programs, Denver, Boulder, Broomfield, and Jefferson counties; and insufficient personnel and resources to make nec- the urbanized portions of Adams, Arapahoe, and essary and timely repairs. The manager also believes Douglas counties; and a portion of Weld County. the requirement of board of directors approval for any The district is governed by a 15-member board of program action or change is a constraint. directors. Funding. The principal sources of BART capital Overview. The RTD Park and Ride Program was funds are FTA Section 5307 and Section 5309 for- established in 1986. It has 26,000 spaces in 75 lots. mula funds. These flow to BART through the MTC. 45 lots are owned by the RTD. Other capital and operating sources are: 20 lots are leased from the state DOT. 10 lots are leased from private interests. Federal Funds FHWA Surface Transportation Program In 2009, the district initiated a new Parking Man- (STP). agement Program. Fifteen of the lots are reserved for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality district residents who park free for the first 24 hours (CMAQ). and then pay $1.00 or $2.00 thereafter, depending on duration. Non-district users pay $2.00 to $4.00 every State Funds 24-hour period. State Gas Tax. There is no stated policy that defines or addresses State Transit Assistance. underutilized lots. Commuter amenities include direct 16

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bus and light rail connections, signage and messaging, agency's 2010 capital expenditures (new and carry parking attendants, ticket scanners, lighting, bicycle forward capital). Intermodal commuter and bus shel- parking, some covered shelters, benches, and infor- ter facilities represent an additional $12 million in mation kiosks. There are automated pay stations expenditures. at each lot. All lots have security. Pedestrian walk- The largest capital expenditure, representing ways are provided at lots where parking and bus 80.3 percent of the program, is FasTracks--a services are on opposite sides of the Interstate system. $6.9 million, 12-year capital program supported by Retail services are available but, according to the a voter-approved sales tax increase, debt issuance, manager, there is low use of the coffee stands and federal capital grants, local government contributions, automated vending machines. Other commuter con- and public-private partnerships. FasTracks represents veniences being considered are DVD rentals, ATMs, new commuter rail and light rail systems in nine cor- and a dry cleaning service. The district is also plan- ridors, bus rapid transit, an expanded park and ride ning cellular phone applications for real-time bus system, and development of the Denver Union Station tracking. as a multimodal hub. When completed, the program According to the manager, the program is suc- will add 35 park and ride lots, representing about cessful because there is enough capacity to meet 17,500 new spaces. demand. He reports that the program generates high levels of transit ridership and reduces lane Programmed Projects. The district's 2010 (non- mileage. For the future, he believes more funding FasTracks) park and ride projects represent $22.2 will be needed to build more facilities to meet future million. They are listed in Table 8, which shows the demand. funding source for each project. Staffing. There are three full time equivalent em- 1. B.3 Maine Turnpike Authority (MTA) ployees within the RTD Department of Planning and Development (engineering and systems planning unit) MTA was created by the Maine Legislature to and the Department of Facilities (parking manage- construct, manage, and operate a 109-mile toll high- ment unit) responsible for elements of the park and way from Kittery to Augusta. ride program. They represent one Manager and two Supervisors. Overview. The MTA Park and Ride Lot Program was established in 1970. It represents 1,155 spaces Policy and Program Elements. The district partici- within 19 lots located within the turnpike corridor. pates in discussions on future park and ride expansions Four of the lots are owned by Maine DOT. All park- with regional stakeholders representing the Denver ing is free. Average lot occupancy is 55 percent. Regional Council of Governments, the Colorado Commuter amenities include lighting and security. Department of Transportation, and local govern- Sixteen percent of the lots have bicycle racks and ments. Their agreements are memorialized in the shelters. Underutilized lots are reviewed on a case- 20-year Regional Transportation Plan. The projects by-case basis. An example is the South Portland lot, are also listed in the RTD Six-Year Transit Devel- which experienced low use. MTA made ingress/ opment Plan, which is adopted by the board of egress improvements but low usage persisted. MTA directors. The requirement for board approval is then asked the Go Maine Commuter Connections perceived by the manager as a constraint to man- Program to educate the public on space availability aging the program. at the lot. This resulted in slightly higher use. The Go Maine Commuter Connections Program Funding. Revenue: According to its 2010 adopted is administered by the Greater Portland Council budget, RTD receives over one-half of its capital of Governments and funded by both Maine DOT revenue from local and private funds (30.3 percent) and MTA, which contribute $115,000 annually to the and federal carryover (26.3 percent). A local use tax program. Go Maine promotes and educates customers is also levied by the RTD and represents 10 percent about alternative transportation choices, including of total capital revenue. walk, transit, bicycle, and car-share options. The total Expenditure: The current park and ride pro- number of registered commuters in the program is gram represents $10 million or 0.9 percent of the 7,612, which is a record high. 17

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Table 8 Denver Regional Transportation District 2010 capital program--park and ride/ intermodal commuter elements. Recommended 2010 Total Capital Sources No. Project Local Federal Total 1 Intermodal Facility; City of Boulder $3,971,829 $7,740,000 $11,711,829 Sub Total $11,711,829 2 P&R: Broomfield Relocation 5,897 5,897 3 P&R: Broadway Euclid 579,120 579,120 4 P&R: Cold Spring Driver Relief Kiosk 51,254 51,254 5 P&R: Colorado River Relief Station 103,200 103,200 6 P&R: 40th and Airport 89,914 89,914 7 P&R: Smoky Hill Road at Picadilly 169,442 169,442 8 P&R: I-25 and Broadway Structure 198,225 198,255 9 P&R: Longmont/Ken Pratt 1,146,069 1,145,069 10 P&R: Longmont/Kimbark Driver Relief Shelter 129,000 129,000 11 P&R: Parker Install Drivers Kiosk 22,797 22,797 12 P&R: Pine Junction 224,325 224,325 13 P&R: Stapleton 4,372,198 2,447,881 6,820,079 14 P&R: Montbello-Relief Kiosk 87,720 87,720 15 P&R: US-36 and McCaslin--Ped Bridge 280 280 16 P&R: US-36 and Reed Street--Mandalay Gardens 2,238 2,238 P&R: US-85 and 72nd Avenue--Driver Relief 17 62,012 62,012 Drainage P&R: US-85 and 72nd Avenue--Driver Relief 18 64,039 64,039 Station 19 P&R: Table Mesa Structural Repair 10,751 10,751 20 P&R: Video Security System--Table Mesa 100,000 100,000 P&R: Wadsworth and Hampden Driver Relief 21 17,749 17,749 Kiosk 22 P&R: Westminster Center East Driver Station 96,659 96,659 23 P&R: Westminster Center West Driver Station 63,466 63,466 Sub Total $10,044,268 24 Bus Shelters 2006 4,201 4,201 25 Bus Shelters 2007 3,734 3,734 26 Bus Shelters 2008 88,758 88,758 27 Bus Shelters 2009 131,871 131,871 28 Bus Shelters 2010 76,200 76,200 Sub Total $304,764 TOTAL $22,160,861 Source: RTD 2010 Adopted Budget, Denver Regional Transportation District, pp. 200, 202, and 203. MTA also subsidizes the ZOOM Turnpike the MTA operating budget, which is supported Express commuter bus. Established in 1998, ZOOM primarily with turnpike tolls. This is also true of service connects to two park and ride lots and runs maintenance. Crews provide litter control, snow express along the turnpike on weekdays. The service removal, and space stripping on an as-needed basis. is cited as one reason for the recent construction of an Their work and costs are comingled with other overflow parking area at the Saco Park and Ride Lot. maintenance functions and costs in the agency Because of increasing ZOOM commuters, MTA budget. coordinated with Maine DOT and the city of Saco to open the overflow facility. The land is owned by MTA Policy and Program Elements. Success of the MTA and leased to Maine DOT. Park and Ride Program, according to the manager, is defined by the average 55 percent lot utilization. Staffing. The program is managed by one Planning The manager reports that the deficiencies of the pro- Assistant. Five percent of her time is dedicated to gram are the lack of funds for land acquisition and administering the program. Her salary is paid from construction and the absence of flexible zoning that 18

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would allow expansion of lots outside of turnpike 1. B.4 Phoenix Valley Metro Regional Public boundaries. The abutting jurisdictions control zoning Transit Authority (RPTA) and perceive lots as traffic generators. They are not The Phoenix Valley Metro RPTA is a public receptive to hosting them. MTA is required to coordinate with Maine DOT, authority responsible for public transit services in municipalities, and regional planning agencies in Maricopa County. The RPTA is a membership orga- compliance with the 1991 Sensible Transportation nization. Cities agree to join the RPTA in the provi- Policy Act before making capital improvements, sion of transit service as a unifying brand name. The including park and ride lot expansions. The Sensible three largest bus operators are the cities of Phoenix Act requires MTA to prepare, analyze, document, and and Tempe, and the RPTA. Each city appoints a discuss a full range of alternatives before proposing representative to the RPTA board of directors. any new facilities. The process and steps for coordi- nation are further defined in Rules for the Sensible Overview. The RPTA Park and Ride Program was Transportation Policy Act, which is administered by established in 2000. There are 7,540 spaces in 49 lots. Maine DOT. MTA is required--by law--to achieve Twenty-four of the lots are owned by local jurisdic- consensus from stakeholders before finalizing capital tions and 25 by private interests. All of the lots are free improvement plans. to the public. Six percent of the spaces are designated In addition to Sensible Act requirements, MTA for handicapped parking. meets quarterly with the Maine DOT Park and Ride Commuter amenities include connections to other Manager to coordinate their shared responsibility for modes, intelligent signing and messaging, lighting, the state park and ride program. security (including guards and cameras), bicycle park- ing, bicycle lockers, pedestrian walkways, shelters, Funding. MTA relies on revenue generated from tolls benches, information kiosks, and shade canopies. and bonds. The manager estimates that $100,000 is Retail services are available to commuters at the allocated annually for park and ride lot maintenance. private lots. Funding for improvements is considered on a project- Average lot occupancy is not known. If there by-project basis. An example is the Wells Regional is persistent underutilization, the RPTA increases Transportation Intermodal Center, built in 2003. The the number of stalls that are covered with canopies. 1,600 ft2, handicapped accessible center provides The canopies protect vehicles from the sun and entice commuter amenities such as vending machines, ATM motorists to use the lots. service, pay phones, benches, newspaper machines, and bicycle parking. The center has a 201-space Staffing. One employee, a Senior Management commuter lot for access to Vermont Transit (bus) Analyst, dedicates 20 percent of his time to the park and taxis, limousines, trolleys, an airport shuttle, and and ride program. No staff is assigned for maintenance. a daily bus to the Connecticut Foxwoods Casino. Trains at the center provide passenger service between Policy and Program Elements. According to the Portland and Boston. manager, local funding is an issue in the current Before 2003, MTA initially considered using economy. The RPTA board, he says, is comprised of just its capital funds to modestly expand the Wells mayors and city managers "who struggle with their Center. After discussion with Maine DOT and the own budgets." town of Wells, it was agreed to use MTA capital RPTA commissioned the 2008 Park and Ride funds to attract federal funds. MTA contributed Reprioritization Study, which offers guidelines and $1.4 million, which matched $1.2 million in CMAQ recommendations on managing the regional park funds. The federal grant was administered by the and ride system. One key recommendation is for the Northern New England Passenger Rail Authority. RPTA to cap its cost for constructing a new park and Through the agreement, the Town of Wells assumes ride at $4.5 million in 2008 dollars. Any cost above all costs for operating the center. the cap would be paid by the host jurisdiction. Programmed Projects. There are no immediate park Funding. Federal funds do not pass through the and ride/intermodal commuter projects programmed RPTA. The agency is funded with a 1/2 cent regional by the MTA. sales tax for roadways and transit, called the Public 19