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Instructive and very clear program management It is a unit of the cabinet-level Business, Transporta- policies and guidance. tion and Housing Agency. Effective participation in the complex metro- politan and regional decision-making processes. Overview. The Caltrans Park and Ride Program was established in 1975. According to the Caltrans Park These best practices are discussed in Chapter 2. and Ride Program Resource Guide, its purpose is to "improve mobility across California by promoting car- Conclusions pooling and transit usage, thereby removing vehicles from the transportation system and increasing per- The conclusions in Chapter 3 address management son throughput" (Park and Ride Program Resource principles such as asset management, staffing levels, Guide, 2010, p. 6). This goal complements the policies budgeting and pricing strategies, and public-private of the California Transportation Plan. The program partnership finance options that may be applied to represents 33,889 parking spaces in 326 lots. Of park and ride facilities. These include design-build- the total: finance-operate agreements and performance-based maintenance contracts. 208 lots are owned by the state. 22 lots are owned by counties. 17 lots are owned by local jurisdictions. Suggested Research 64 lots are owned by private interests. Suggested topics for additional research are listed Caltrans shares an interest in 15 additional lots: in Chapter 4. three are city lots; seven are county lots; and five are federal, transit center, and regional bus lots. Leasing agreements are used for lots not owned by the state. CHAPTER 1 PROGRAM SURVEYS Parking at all of the lots is free. An inventory is main- Twelve park and ride/intermodal commuter pro- tained at the Caltrans central office in spreadsheet grams were surveyed from August to October 2010. format. This involved 13 telephone surveys and one additional According to the program manager, average lot discussion with the manager of a supplementary state occupancy is 60 percent. This, he reports, is an indi- program. Sixty-two percent of the surveyed programs cator of the success of the program. If utilization falls are managed by state DOTs. The remaining programs below 20 percent, the leasing agreement is terminated are managed by public transit authorities and trans- or, if the lot is owned by the state, it is converted to portation districts. In this chapter, brief summaries of a permitted use, such as a child care facility. each surveyed program are provided. Each summary begins with a program overview followed by infor- Staffing. The program is managed by one Park and mation on program staffing, policy, and funding. The Ride Coordinator located at Caltrans headquarters. planned capital projects for each program are also There is also one Park and Ride Coordinator within provided. The state DOT programs are presented first. each of the 12 Caltrans districts. Policy and Program Elements. One deficiency, 1. A State Department of Transportation according to the manager, is the program's low (DOT) Programs priority in state transportation budgeting. One legal issue is state law that limits park and ride lot use to The California, Florida, Maine, New Mexico, commuters. The manager reports there are no enforce- Rhode Island, and Virginia programs are described ment provisions to ensure commuter-only use and here. there is no monitoring. As a result, non-commuters park in the lots. Another state law prohibits commer- 1. A.1 California Department of Transportation cial activity at the lots. As a result, there are no options (Caltrans) for generating on-site revenue through retail activity. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) is the state department responsible for Funding. The state assumes 80 percent of the cost managing and administering transportation services. for maintaining the park and ride lots. This is from 3

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the department's general maintenance funds. The 1. A.2 Florida DOT work is performed by district maintenance crews. Florida DOT develops, maintains, and regulates Local governments assume 16 percent of the cost for state public transportation systems and services. It is their lots and private land owners, 4 percent. The composed of seven administrative districts; each typical funding sources used for capital improve- district is responsible for managing transportation ments are as follows: within the boundaries of the district. Federal Funds Overview. The Florida DOT Statewide Park and FHWA--Congestion Mitigation and Air Ride Program was established in 1982 and represents Quality Improvement (CMAQ). 23,664 spaces within 105 lots. Only one of the lots is FTA--Section 5903. owned by Florida DOT. The rest are owned by public transit interests (51 percent) and private interests State Funds (49 percent). State leasing agreements, covering In California, user taxes and fees are deposited maintenance and management responsibilities, are into state fund accounts. The accounts that support used for lots with private or public agency ownership. park and ride/intermodal commuter facilities in All of the parking spaces are free to the public except some way include: those owned by Metrorail, which charges daily or Transportation Tax Fund: Highway Users Tax monthly fees. Commuter amenities at the lots include Account. lighting, pedestrian walkways, shelters, benches, State Transportation Fund: and information kiosks. Fifty-six percent of the lots Local Transportation Loan Account, are served directly by bus or rail. Public Transportation Account, and The average occupancy at the lots is 49.8 percent. State Highway Account. According to the Park and Ride Manager, the program Other Funds: is considered a success when there is 60 percent or Environmental Enhancement and Mitiga- higher occupancy. This goal is achieved or exceeded tion Program Fund, mostly in urban areas, where there is a high concentra- Traffic Congestion Relief Fund, and tion of transit service. If lots do not meet the occu- Transportation Investment Fund. pancy goal, headquarters conducts a review with the district in which the lot is located. If low usage con- Local Funds tinues, the lot is closed. Local Transportation Funds. While there is broad oversight from headquarters, each district administers its own park and ride pro- The Caltrans 20102011 budget shows a $1.4 bil- gram. Each is required to submit annual reports on the lion reduction in various state transportation accounts. status of their programs to headquarters. The program The manager indicates this shortfall may hamper manager consolidates the information into a comput- efforts to improve and develop the park and ride erized database, which tracks assets including infor- system. mation on space and lot location, size, cost, ownership, ancillary facilities, available transit services, and Programmed Projects. The Caltrans FY08-12 State- annual occupancy. wide Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) lists several programmed park and ride/intermodal Staffing. One employee at Florida DOT head- commuter projects. A representative sample is shown quarters--Federal Grants Manager--is responsible in Table 2. for overseeing the statewide program. Table 2 California Department of Transportation representative sample programmed park and ride/intermodal commuter projects (FY0812). Name Description Costs Fund Source Downtown Ione 30-space park and ride facility $345,000 FHWA CMAQ/Local funds Sutter Hill Transit Center Park and ride facility $1,033,000 FHWA CMAQ/Local funds Modoc County Transportation center parking $200,000 Transportation account/State funds 4

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Policy and Program Elements. The program is Proximity to existing transit service. defined by two policy documents. The first--Park Expected 60 percent or higher occupancy. and Ride Lot Program, Topic No. 725-030-002-f, issued May 14, 2001--explains the goal, objectives, No federal grants are used. The monies are from and organization of the program. This document the state transportation fund. In 20072008, a total defines the state park and ride program as "a program of $1.1 million was awarded to five districts but this designed to encourage the use of transit, carpools, covered only 14.4 percent of the total requests. Match- vanpools and other high occupancy vehicle modes, ing funds of $900,000 from public transit interests by providing safe and convenient parking facilities supplemented the awards. The manager reports that for commuters" (Park and Ride Lot Program, Topic award levels have decreased each year due to budget No. 725-030-002-f, Transit Office, Florida Depart- reductions. ment of Transportation, May 14, 2011). Because the statewide park and ride program is This document defines the purpose of the program decentralized and administered primarily by districts, as: "to provide for the purchase and/or leasing of a review of one district program was undertaken and private land for the construction of park and ride is described here. lots, the promotion of these lots and the monitoring of their usage" (Park and Ride Lot Program, Topic 1. A.2.a Florida DOT District 6. District 6 is located No. 725-030-002-f, Transit Office, Florida Depart- on the southern tip of the Florida peninsula. It com- ment of Transportation, May 14, 2011). prises the cities of Key West and Miami and the The document further advises that parking facil- counties of Miami-Dade and Monroe. Two public ities must be sited, sized, and promoted for a reason- transit systems operate within the district: able expectation of achieving an average occupancy of 60 percent. It confirms that the facilities are inter- Tri-Rail is a commuter rail system operated modal facilities and should be designed to facilitate by the South Florida Regional Transportation transfer between modes. Authority (SFRTA). The second document, State Park and Ride Miami-Dade County Transit (MDT) operates Lot Program Planning Manual, September 1996 bus and rail services called Miami-Dade Metro- (as amended April 2001), offers methodology and bus and Miami-Dade Metrorail. The latter is a guidance on the following: 22-station, rapid transit system. How to evaluate the performance of park and While the transit agencies manage and operate ride lots. their own facilities, their parking lots and garages Processes for facility development and site are part of the District 6 inventory. selection. Methods for estimating demand and facility Overview. The District 6 program was established size. in 1982. It represents 11,164 spaces within 30 lots. Procedures for assessing impacts of park and Three of the lots are owned by Tri-Rail, 26 lots by ride facilities. Metrorail and Metrobus, and one by Florida DOT. Economic analysis and project justification Parking is free except at Metrorail lots where there methods. is a daily ($4.00) or monthly ($10.00) fee. The lots External and internal conceptual design of the are for commuter use only. Overnight parking is facilities. prohibited. Commuter amenities include lighting, Program promotion methods and techniques. security, shelters, and benches. Retail services are Performance measures. available at several of the Metrorail garages and lots, where there is transit-oriented development (see the Funding. Florida DOT headquarters administers an subsequent section, "Policy and Program Elements annual grant process where each district submits [Statewide and District]"). funding requests for park and ride expansions and According to the program manager, success is improvements. These requests are evaluated based on: defined by the goal of achieving at least 60 percent Available state funding. occupancy at all lots. Currently the goal is exceeded Need. with average occupancy of 68 percent. 5

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Staffing. The district program is administered by one Federal Funds. In the Five-Year Work Program, fed- Transit Program Administrator whose park and ride eral funds supporting the development of park and program responsibilities represent roughly 10 percent ride/intermodal commuter facilities represent roughly of his total time. $657.2 million or $131.4 million annually. Policy and Program Elements (Statewide and State Funds. State transportation activities are fi- District). The headquarters manager reports there nanced through a State Transportation Trust Fund are no legal or policy impediments to implementing in which federal aid and traditional local revenue the program. (user fees, taxes, and surcharges) are deposited. As In District 6, the process for developing and required by Florida law, a minimum of 15 percent funding park and ride/intermodal commuter projects of the State Transportation Trust Fund deposits is part of the process for developing the MDT Transit must be allocated to public transportation programs, Development Plan (TDP), which requires agreements representing: among regional stakeholders, representing the MDT, Tri-Rail, Florida DOT District 6, the metropolitan Public Transit Block Grant Program. planning organization (MPO), and municipalities. Transit Corridor Program. Park and ride projects agreed to by the stakeholders Public Transit Service Development Program. are ranked in the regional TDP and the MPO Priority Commuter Assistance Program. Project List. During the MPO process, agreements on Park and Ride Lot Program. funding commitments and grant requests are reached. Intermodal Development Program. The highest ranked projects are incorporated in the Transportation Regional Incentive Program. District 6 Five-Year Work Program, which is then incorporated into the Florida DOT Statewide Five- Local Funds. Transit agencies and local governments Year Work Program, which meets the broader objec- contribute their share or local match to the park and tives and priorities of the Florida Transportation Plan. ride/intermodal commuter projects that they request Each year the number of capital improvements is and support. This match is typically drawn from local based on estimates of available funds. Headquarters operating or capital funds. coordinates its Five-Year Work Program with the seven districts, the Turnpike Enterprise, the Rail Programmed Projects. Two representative District Enterprise, the MPOs, the federal government, and 6 park and ride/intermodal commuter projects from local governments. After the Five-Year Work Pro- the FY11 STIP and their fund sources are shown here. gram is approved, the projects are programmed into the Statewide Transportation Improvement Program Miami Intermodal Center--Central Station (FY2011) (STIP) and each district pursues its work program. Cost: Miami-Dade Transit has an active joint-use devel- Preliminary Engineering--$187.8 million, opment policy that was established 6 years before Right of Way--$2.5 billion, and the start of Metrorail service. The County Board of Construction--$49.2 billion. Commissioners adopted Ordinance 78-74 that pro- Fund Sources: vides guidelines and procedures for development at Federal: FHWA STP Urban; and near its fixed rail properties. Several Metrorail joint State: State Primary Highways, State Infra- development projects with park and ride/intermodal structure Bank, District Dedicated Revenue, commuter facilities are either completed or underway. State In-House Product Support; and The agency receives revenues of $1.5 million annually Local: Local Funds. from two of these properties. Tri County Rail--Opa-Locka Station--Additional Funding. There is no operating budget specific to Parking--Park and Ride Lots (FY2011) the District 6 park and ride program. Its costs are Cost: $446,790. comingled with other functions. For capital improve- Fund Sources: ments, in addition to headquarter grant awards, State: State Public Transportation funds, District 6 receives a mix of federal, state, and local and funds, described here. Local: Local funds (Tri-Rail). 6

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1. A.3 Maine DOT Negotiation and Trade Off: Maine DOT may approach a private property owner, municipal- Maine DOT is a cabinet-level agency responsible ity, and/or business and offer transportation for the regulation and maintenance of roads, high- ways, bridges, and other public transportation services improvements, in exchange for the owner pro- and infrastructure. viding park and ride service at the site. Within State Right of Way: If determined fea- Overview. The Maine DOT Park and Ride Program sible and as a low-cost option, Maine DOT may was established in 1988. It represents 2,418 parking construct a park and ride lot on state property spaces within 41 lots. Twenty lots (49 percent) are within a commuter traffic area. state-owned, 12 lots (29 percent) are owned by the Land Acquisition: Maine DOT may acquire Maine Turnpike Authority, and nine lots (22 percent) land to construct a park and ride lot, to support are owned by private interests. The program has an an already programmed regional highway or average lot occupancy of 50.8 percent. transit project. Improvement or Expansion: Maine DOT may 80 percent of the lots have lighting. improve an existing park and ride lot based on 37 percent of the lots are located at a fixed bus a need expressed by local or regional interests. route but only one lot has a bus shelter. 22 percent of the lots are located within a Staffing. The program is managed by one Policy commercial site with retail services. Development Specialist within the Maine DOT Plan- 5 percent of the lots have bicycle parking. ning Division and represents 5 to 10 percent of her The Maine DOT park and ride lots are free to time. One staff member from the legal division pre- anyone. Overnight parking is prohibited. According pares the shared-use lease agreements. Another staff to the Park and Ride Manager, the purpose of the member from the finance division prepares reports program is to: on the status of federal grants used for the program. Increase the number of park and ride users. Policy and Program Elements. According to the Decrease vehicle miles traveled statewide. manager, there are no legal or policy constraints to Reduce air pollution. administering the program; however, funding is Offer viable alternatives to single occupancy an issue. The manager believes the full potential of vehicle travel. the program will not be realized until the following Develop private-public partnerships. measures are in place: Encourage efficient land use patterns. Maine DOT assesses its park and ride assets There is increased federal and state funding roughly every 2 years. Its 2007 report (Maine's Park for capital improvements and maintenance. and Ride Lots, System Update) recommends con- There are more shelters and signage at the tinuation of public-private partnerships to increase lots. shared-use parking that occurs at 51 percent of the lots. There is more education and outreach to A memorandum of agreement is used to define the employers and commuters, to increase their terms and conditions of these arrangements. Maine awareness and participation. DOT's public-private partnerships are typically with Maine DOT's principal partner in managing the municipalities, other state agencies, churches, and program is the Maine Turnpike Authority. The agen- businesses. cies meet quarterly to discuss objectives, policies, According to the manager, the creation or upgrade and strategies for achieving higher use. Maine DOT of a park and ride lot may occur in several ways and also conducts routine meetings with municipalities, often on a project-by-project basis, as follows: local and regional planning agencies, and MPOs to Traffic Permit Process: During the permit assess and gauge commuter parking needs. Projects process, Maine DOT may negotiate with a identified in the process, and deemed viable, are developer the option of providing a lot within incorporated into the Maine DOT Long Range Trans- a commercial area in lieu of paying the devel- portation Plan and, if funds are available, they are oper impact fee. programmed into the STIP. 7

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Funding. The Maine DOT Park and Ride Program and 258,086 passenger trips in 2010, the New Mexico receives a CMAQ grant of $1.2 million from the DOT Park and Ride Program is the state's fifth largest U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) every transit system. A description of each component is 2 years. This is used as seed money for planning and provided here. developing the program. The 20 percent match to the federal grant is achieved through a variety of sources, Park and Ride Lots: The program represents 1,208 such as state highway funds and state bond monies, spaces in 19 lots. and through in-kind contributions from municipalities Nine of the lots are state-owned. or regional interests. If, for example, a municipality Seven of the lots are owned by the city of strongly advocates for a park and ride facility, it may El Paso, Texas. pay the 20 percent match in cash or use its general Three of the lots are owned by private interests. fund to cover the cost of maintenance. If the park and One of the lots is owned by a county. ride is part of a regional highway improvement proj- One of the lots is owned by the Navajo Tribe. ect, the 20 percent match is typically provided by the state. Each circumstance is different depending on Average lot occupancy ranges between 40 and the terms of the request, where the lot is located, and 50 percent. All parking is free but 75 percent of the its purpose. According to the manager, a request for spaces are designated for car pools and van pools. funds to construct or improve a lot is prioritized by Commuter amenities include lighting, security, cov- the department, based on four factors: ered shelters, and benches. A bus shuttle serves the lots every hour. Cost and available funding. The program manager defines underutilized lots Site location (on or near a major road). as having "extra parking capacity." When lots are Expected use. underutilized, the New Mexico DOT Transit Office Connectivity to other modes such as a fixed promotes the lot to the public and offers free bus bus route. service for 1 week. Programmed Projects. Examples of capital projects Bus Service: In addition to managing the parking in the Maine DOT FY1013 STIP are shown in facilities, New Mexico DOT contracts with private Table 3. operators for bus service to and from the lots. The fleet represents twenty-six 57-passenger motor coaches 1. A.4 New Mexico DOT and two back-ups. The routes and their average daily The six districts that represent the New Mexico ridership are shown in Table 4. DOT manage transit, rail, aviation, and highway sys- Monthly bus passes cost $60 to $90. A system- tems and services statewide. wide monthly pass costs $150 and enables unlimited trips on the bus and the Rail Runner Express, which Overview. The New Mexico DOT Park and Ride is the public commuter rail serving Albuquerque and Program is not a traditional program covering just Santa Fe. New Mexico DOT estimates an average lots. It also is a bus and shuttle program. With monthly savings of $631 over single occupancy 131 daily bus departures on eight routes, two shuttles, vehicle travel for bus commuters (assuming an 80-mile Table 3 Maine Department of Transportation representative sample programmed park and ride/intermodal commuter facilities state transportation improvement program (FY1013). Location Description Cost/Fund Source Federal: $48,000 Auburn 150 space park and ride lots as part of an intermodal facility State: $12,000 Federal: $500,000 Bath Intermodal passenger facility and parking Local: $52,736 Partial funding for intermodal passenger facility served by Concord Federal: $72,226 Portland Coach bus and Down-easter rail line 370 commuter parking spaces State: $18,057 8

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Table 4 New Mexico Department of Transportation park and ride program--bus service. Avg. Daily Name Route Ridership Orange Santa Fe and Las Vegas 89.0 Red Espanola, Pojoaque, and Santa Fe 80.7 Green Espanola and Los Alamos 195.5 Blue Santa Fe, Pojoaque, and Los Alamos 255.7 Purple NM599 Station and Los Alamos 153.7 Silver Las Cruces/New Mexico State University and White Sands Missile Range 54.4 Turquoise Moriarty and Albuquerque/Sandia National Lab 33.6 Gold Las Cruces, Anthony, Texas, and El Paso, Texas 148.0 round trip, 30 mpg, $0.50 per mile vehicle operating The New Mexico DOT Transit and Rail Division and ownership cost, and a $90 monthly pass). administers the park and ride program and also oversees commuter rail planning and operations. Shuttle Service: In addition to parking and bus The division is the FTA-designated recipient for rural, service, there are two New Mexico DOT shuttles-- small urban, and metropolitan transit program grants. the Santa Fe South Capitol Station Shuttle and the It participates in the prioritization process for MPO NM599 Station Shuttle. The shuttles operate week- transit projects that are eventually programmed into days and carry rail and park and ride commuters to the STIP. As the designated federal recipient, the destinations not easily accessible by bus. The shuttles division administers the following federal grants: are free with a park and ride monthly pass, Rail Run- FTA Section 5307--Rural and Small Urban. ner Express pass, or Santa Fe Trails pass. Otherwise, FTA Section 5311--Rural Public Transit. there is a one-way fare of $1.00. FTA Section 5316--Job Access and Reverse According to the manager, in 2010, the park and Commute. ride program FTA Section 5303--Metropolitan Planning Reduced traffic congestion by removing an Program. estimated 7.6 million vehicle miles of travel FHWA--Congestion Mitigation/Air Quality from the busiest state highways during the and Surface Transportation Program. busiest commute hours. Reduced carbon dioxide emissions by 3,724 Funding. The initial funding for the entire program-- tons. park and ride, bus and shuttle--was $500,000 in Reduced gasoline consumption by 380,000 federal funds and $1.5 million in state funds. gallons. Maintenance of the lots is estimated to be $24,000 annually. New Mexico DOT pays $1,500 per month Staffing. The program is administered by staff within for each of the three private lots and $1,000 per the New Mexico DOT Transit and Rail Division, month for maintenance in addition to $1,000 per lot representing a 0.5 full time equivalent. for annual snow removal. For bus operations, New Mexico DOT contributes $5 million annually, which Policy and Program Elements. According to the is supplemented with $250,000 from rural transit funds manager, lot occupancy, utilization, security and (Section 5311). Funding revenue is also provided by safety define the success of the program. Moreover, the city of El Paso and from passenger fares. he reports that the addition of the buses and shuttles which transport passengers from employment sites Programmed Projects. In its FY1013 STIP, New to rail and the lots has been "very successful." One Mexico DOT anticipates $33.4 million for improve- deficiency, he reports, is current state and federal ments to its park and ride program, from the following sources: funding levels, which limit program growth. Another challenge is the difficulty in acquiring property for FTA Section 5311--$18.4 million. additional lots. FTA Section 5309--$7.9 million. 9

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Table 5 New Mexico Department of Transportation Statewide Transportation Improvement Program--FY1013 park and ride/intermodal commuter facility projects. Project Program Year Number Project Description Fund Source 2010 2011 2012 2013 TL00015 Road Runner Transit: Phase I FTA 5307 Capital $655,498 Intermodal Facility Construction T200020 City of Hobbs Transit Intermodal Facility including covered bus storage bays and outside parking FTA 5309 Capital $900,000 spaces FTA-7701(62) ABQ Ride Transit Enhancement: FTA 5307 Capital $296,250 106,250 Construct bus shelter Local Govt. Road 4,200 $4,450 3,700 2,950 Fund TPU-7701(61) ABQ Ride: Construct park and Local Govt. Road 500,000 ride facility Fund TA00030 Rio Metro: Construct bus stops, park and ride lots, shelters, and FHWA CMAQ 120,552 179,073 179,073 175,562 associated equipment TA00070 Montano Rail Runner: Construct new station including property purchase, station planning and FTA 5309 Capital 6,952,800 design, and park and ride lot FTA-TPU- ABQ Ride: Develop park and FTA 5307 Capital 750,000 1,250,000 7600(10) ride facilities at various locations FHWA - CMAQ 234,082 FTA-5310(22) FTA 5310: Capital awards FTA 5310 Capital 1,393,030 1,393,030 Awards FTA-5311(55) FTA 5311: Administration and FTA 5311 8,647,830 8,647,830 operating grants FTA-5311(27) Park and Ride Program: Capital FTA 5311 544,340 544,340 and operating expenses Operating TOTAL $20,046,834 $10,768,723 $479,023 $2,190,260 Source: Statewide Transportation Improvement Program, FY2010-FY2013, Amendment 5, New Mexico Department of Transportation. FTA Section 5307--$3.1 million. lots; five owned by local government and four by FTA Section 5310--$2.8 million. private owners. Average lot occupancy is 55 percent. FHWA CMAQ--$0.7 million. Parking is free. Local--$0.5 million. 95 percent of the lots are for commuter use. The capital projects programmed in the STIP are 25 percent of the lots have bicycle parking. shown in Table 5. 10 percent of the lots have designated handi- capped parking. 1. A.5 Rhode Island DOT/Rhode Island Public Most have lighting and security. Transportation Authority (RIPTA) There is no specific policy for underutilized lots. The Rhode Island DOT is responsible for the con- If a lot is chronically underutilized, RIPTA makes struction, maintenance and inspection of state roads, the determination to discontinue bus service to it; highways and bridges. The Rhode Island Public however, this seldom occurs. Transportation Authority (RIPTA) is the operator of According to Rhode Island DOT, the success of public transit service. Together Rhode Island DOT the program is defined by economic conditions. If and RIPTA oversee the state park and ride program. gas prices rise, there is a higher use of the lots. If the gas price declines, lot use declines. Also, according Overview. The Rhode Island Park and Ride Program to Rhode Island DOT, one program shortfall is the was established before 1980. It represents 1,644 spaces size of the state, which makes it difficult to market in 20 state-owned lots. There are also nine additional the park and ride option. The average Rhode Island 10

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commute takes 23.5 minutes. Because of the short intercity bus hub, and a parking garage for rental work trip, 80 percent of commuters drive alone. cars (2,200 spaces) and commuters (1,000 spaces). A public-private partnership representing the RI Staffing. The responsibility for managing the pro- Airport Corporation and rental car agencies will gram is shared equally by Rhode Island DOT and manage the rental car facility. When completed, the RIPTA. At Rhode Island DOT, one Principal Planner station will be the closest rail connection to a major dedicates 2 percent of his time to the program. At airport terminal in the country. The total estimated RIPTA, one Operations Manager dedicates 1 percent cost is $222 million. of his time. The Wickford Junction Station is expected to serve 58 percent of the rail ridership generated in the Policy and Program Elements. The Rhode Island North Kingstown service area. It will be built as a DOT manager reports there are no constraints or public-private partnership with an adjoining private impediments to operating the program. He believes developer and will consist of a parking garage with its best features are the good working relationship 1,000 commuter spaces and 100 spaces for mixed between the agencies and the manageable size of the use retail. The total estimated cost is $49.6 million. program. While there have been no changes to the New Starts, Rail Modernization, and CMAQ funds program since inception, the state is undertaking an are the primary FTA and FHWA fund sources. aggressive rail intermodal commuter facility program, described in the subsequent "Programmed Projects" 1. A.6 Virginia DOT section. Virginia DOT is responsible for building, main- Funding. Rhode Island DOT annually budgets taining, and operating state roadways, bridges, and $30,000 for park and ride lot maintenance. Other tunnels. It is governed and funded by the Common- administrative and operating costs are not known. wealth Transportation Board, which also funds state The primary source of revenue for Rhode Island public transit services through separate agencies. DOT and RIPTA operations is the motor vehicle fuel tax. Other RIPTA revenue is generated from its Overview. The Virginia DOT Park and Ride Program passengers (28 percent) and advertising and miscel- was established in the early 1980s. All spaces are free laneous (12 percent). to the public. The program represents an estimated Each agency's capital program is largely sup- 61,835 spaces within about 309 lots. The inventory ported by federal dollars. The 20 percent match is and average occupancy percentages were compiled provided through general obligation bonds. The state from the park and ride inventory prepared by the STIP shows that planned park and ride/intermodal Virginia DOT Program Manager. While enabling an commuter projects are supported with FTA Sec- understanding of the magnitude of the program, the tion 5307, 5309 and 5311 grants and FHWA CMAQ, numbers for the state program are not considered final Enhancements, Highway Program, GARVEE, and or official until a comprehensive study is completed Pavement Management funds. The projects are also in 2011. The following are estimated figures: supported with congressional earmarks. 38 percent of the lots are state-owned. 27 percent of the lots are owned by private Programmed Projects. One example of a STIP proj- interests. ect is the South County Commuter Rail Project-- 7 percent of the lots are owned by local juris- a 20-mile commuter rail extension from Boston dictions. with station stops in Providence, Warwick, and 6 percent of the lots are owned by the Vir- North Kingstown. The project is funded with federal ginia Railway Express (VRE) and the Wash- funds, congressional earmarks, and private sector ington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority participation. Two intermodal commuter stations (WMATA), and have designated car pool and are planned. van pool spaces. The Warwick Intermodal Station will open this year, connecting rail, bus and auto modes to the Ownership of the remaining lots is not known. T.F. Green airport. The project includes the station, About 20 percent have shelters and benches. Another an elevated people mover, a rental car facility, an 12 percent have bicycle parking. Success, according 11

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to the manager, is determined by the needs of com- tunity to make additional suggestions for new or muters. Average occupancy is about 50 percent but expanded Park and Ride Facilities. Since not all of at several locations demand exceeds capacity on a the regions have completed Park and Ride studies daily basis. The park and ride inventory is maintained or transit plans, VDOT plans to conduct a state- at the Virginia DOT central office as an electronic wide Park and Ride Study beginning in 2010. This study will evaluate the existing inventory spreadsheet. Its data fields are: of Park and Ride Facilities and identify current Owner ID. and future Park and Ride needs throughout Maintain ID. the state" (Emphasis added. Virginia STP 2035 Number of Spaces. [draft March 2010], pp. 323). Number of Handicapped Spaces. Federal state planning and research (SPR) grants Paved. fund the STP planning activities. Surface-Striped. Virginia DOT efforts to develop and expand park Transit Service. and ride/intermodal commuter facilities are comple- Transit Shelter. mented by the grant programs of the state Depart- Bike Provision. ment of Rail and Public Transportation (DRPT). The Lights. agency is the designated recipient of certain federal Fenced. grant funds. It issues these and state grants to local Signed. governments, district commissions, management Number of Vehicles Parked. associations, service corporations, human service Expansion Needed. agencies, and private non-profit organizations. Grants Telephone. that support park and ride/intermodal commuter Facility Location. facilities are shown in Table 6. Staff Comments. DRPT does not fund construction. Its priority is The inventory was partially updated in 2006 but, ac- to increase usage at existing facilities, as explained cording to the manager, it is incomplete and not an by the manager of mobility programs: accurate compilation of all assets. "Here is an example of how DRPT provided funds to a Virginia county to increase usage of Staffing. The program is administered by one an existing park-and-ride lot. Loudoun County, Policy and Planning Specialist position, located Virginia received a grant through DRPT to pro- in the central office Transportation Mobility and mote new bus service at a specific park-and-ride Planning Division. Twenty-five percent of this staff lot (Dulles South). The lot was underutilized member's time is dedicated to the park and ride and by adding the bus service Loudoun County program. hoped to alleviate some of the overcrowding at other park-and-ride lots while increasing transit Policy and Program Elements. The process for service. There was a marketing effort of $17,447 identifying and funding new park and ride facilities (October 2006March 2007) that consisted of ads is defined by the Surface Transportation Plan (STP) in the local and regional newspapers. A brochure which is the strategic plan for future development was also created. All ads and the brochure feature the Dulles South park-and-ride lot as the place to of all modes of transportation in Virginia. From a go to ride the bus. The lot has 250 spaces and policy perspective, the STP has targeted park and before the bus service and promotion, less than ride facilities as a future priority, as stated here: half of the spaces were used. Ridership on the bus "MPO Long-Range Plans were examined in order mirrored the parking lot usage--a 70% increase to identify existing regional recommendations from the beginning of the promotional period to for Park and Ride facilities. Additionally, some the end. Loudoun County also implemented a regions have conducted Park and Ride studies or shuttle service from a few of the small park-and- have developed transit plans that recommend ride lots to a large park-and-ride lot that is over- locations for new or expanded facilities. The rec- crowded and is served by bus service." (Manager ommendations in these sources were compiled of Mobility Programs, Virginia Department of and reviewed by VDOT. Following this initial Rail and Public Transportation, e-mail to the review, MPOs and PDCs were given the oppor- research team, October 22, 2010.) 12

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Table 6 Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation state and federal grant programs (supporting park and ride/intermodal commuter facilities). Grant Program Program Description Matching Ratios STATE PROGRAMS Costs borne by eligible recipients for operating Operating Assistance Up to 95% of eligible expenses. related public transportation expenses Costs borne by eligible recipients for public Capital Assistance Up to 95% of eligible expenses. transportation capital projects Assists communities in preserving and revitalizing Demonstration Project public or private-public transportation service by Up to 95% of eligible expenses. Assistance implementing innovative projects Supports planning or technical assistance to help Up to 50% of eligible expenses. Technical Assistance improve or initiate public transportation-related Federal funds may be provided services to support 80% of project costs. Supports administration of existing or new local TDM/Commuter Assistance Up to 80% of eligible expenses. regional TDM/Commuter Assistance programs FEDERAL AID PROGRAMS Up to 50% of net operating Supports operating and capital costs of transit FTA Section 5307 expenses. Up to 80% of eligible operators in small urban areas capital expenses. Up to 50% of net operating Supports operating and capital costs of transit FTA Section 5311 expenses. Up to 80% of eligible operators in non-urbanized areas capital expenses. Source: Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation Program Application Guidance, November 2008. Virginia DOT recommended that its northern The remaining are owned equally by the state and district be contacted for study, noting that the district the counties. program is the best example of park and ride man- Average lot occupancy is 66 percent but the state agement in the commonwealth. The district program lots have a consistent 80 to 90 percent occupancy. is described here. Commuter amenities include public bus service, lighting, security, bicycle parking, shelters, benches, 1. A.6.a Virginia DOT--Northern District (NOVA). sidewalks, information kiosks, and public telephones. Virginia DOT--Northern District (NOVA) is com- There are no retail services. The lots are for commuter posed of four counties: Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, use only. Lot maintenance is the responsibility of and Prince Williams counties. The District Office the owner. provides transportation planning, engineering, per- According to the manager, underutilized lots mitting, maintenance, and construction services. are defined as having less than 50 percent average occupancy. NOVA informs the public of space avail- Overview. The NOVA Park and Ride Program sup- ability at these lots through marketing, promotion, ports one of the most highly utilized high occupancy and postings on its website. The manager believes vehicle (HOV) systems in the United States. Eighty the program is "highly successful" because of the percent of the person trips approaching the Capital following characteristics: Beltway on I-95 and destined to the Arlington and Proximity to the regional HOV network. Washington, D.C., core areas, in the AM peak pe- Sustained high utilization rates. riod, use either HOV or transit modes. Similarly, Uniform use of cooperative leasing agreements. HOV facilities are present on I-66, the Dulles Toll Of the 38 lots held by private interests, 28 are Road and US-1. governed by contractual leasing agreements The District Park and Ride Program was estab- between private land owners and jurisdictions. lished in the 1970s to support HOV services. The program represents 21,000 spaces within 80 lots. The manager estimates that the program has taken Unlike other surveyed park and ride programs, nearly 16,000 to 17,000 vehicles off district roadways one-half (48 percent) of the lots are privately owned. annually. 13