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· Conducts or oversees the inventory of park and network with strategically placed park and ride ride stalls and maintains a central database. facilities. According to the manager, the regional · Oversees studies relating to park and ride needs, decision-making process continues to support this such as the 2003 Northern Virginia Park & Ride initial objective. The process is sequential: Lot Feasibility Study, Final Report, which was · Regional stakeholders first determine and doc- used as a model for a statewide study planned ument the need for a proposed park and ride in 2011. facility. · Applies the district Six-Year Work Program · If demand is evident and there is an appropriate as a management tool for advancing future site, potential fund sources are discussed. regional park and ride projects. The group relies on its regional allocation of · Coordinates and shares district park and ride federal Surface Transportation Program (STP) information and data with the Virginia DOT funds. These funds are allocated by formula central office. and local match is required. The group also · Promotes and communicates the availability considers other federal sources as well as state of park and ride services to the general public. and local contributions. From the perspective of a state DOT, the NOVA · When the funding source and local match example demonstrates the correlation between pro- are identified, the regional stakeholders must gram effectiveness and the time allocated by staff to agree to use the funds for the proposed park the park and ride management function. The NOVA and ride facility. When consensus is achieved, manager is knowledgeable, participates substantively the project is listed in the NOVA Six-Year in all aspects of the program, is integral to its oper- Work Program. The funds are then obligated ation within and outside of the agency, and directly in the STIP. influences Virginia DOT resources to the program. From the perspective of a state DOT, the process Most of the surveyed park and ride managers dedi- for securing and prioritizing funds for an expanded cated between 5 percent and 10 percent of time to park and ride system is often challenging. Accord- their programs, with limited involvement in all aspects. ing to the manager, there is usually no immediate Several were unaware of or removed from specific gain as the regional projects must compete (often aspects, such as how or when lots are maintained, unsuccessfully) with statewide transportation prior- how many future stalls will be needed and where they ities. It may take several years for the project to be should be located, or how funding decisions occur built. However, undertaking the regional decision- internally or externally. Most deferred the preparation making process early on--several years before need and execution of leasing agreements--which are for the project is imperative and urgent--has resulted critical tools for expanding a park and ride program-- in the slow but gradual expansion of the NOVA park to others. The NOVA example is considered a best and ride system. The current Six-Year Work Program practice that may be replicated by state DOTs. represents $49.1 million in park and ride improve- ments. All of the projects were developed in the results- Interagency Coordination. According to the manager, oriented, decision-making process, as described. bringing together and coordinating all regional inter- The best practices of the surveyed programs are ests is the key to achieving a successful park and ride summarized in Table 14. program. The NOVA method is embedded in the process for preparing its Six-Year Work Program. The work program serves as a management tool that CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSIONS identifies the features and timing of transportation While the best practices identified in Chapter 2 projects agreed upon by regional stakeholders. The are instructive and encouraged for replication by stakeholders are local municipalities, counties, rail state DOTs, this chapter offers additional sugges- and bus agencies, and the MPO. In these forums, past tions for managing and financing state park and ride/ decisions have resulted in one of the most success- intermodal commuter programs. It begins with the ful park and ride and high occupancy vehicle (HOV) needs expressed by the surveyed managers and systems in the country. This is largely due to the responds with suggestions that may be implemented decision in the early 1970s to supplement the HOV with limited costs. Other suggestions identified in 31