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January 2012 AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Responsible Senior Program Officer: Michael R. Salamone Research Results Digest 13 SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION RELATED TO AIRPORT PRACTICES This is a staff digest of the progress and status of ACRP Project A11-03, "Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices," for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Individual studies for the project are managed by Gail R. Staba, Senior Program Officer, and Jon M. Williams, Program Director, Synthesis Studies, serving under the Studies and Special Programs Division of the Transportation Research Board, Stephen R. Godwin, Director. INTRODUCTION You can submit your recommenda- Airport administrators, engineers, and tion at: researchers often face problems for which Public/ACRP.aspx "Submit an ACRP information already exists, either in docu- Topic." Topics suggested must be mented form or as undocumented experi- accompanied by a brief (one or two ence and practice. This information may paragraphs) scope statement, including be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. a discussion of the problem. A title As a consequence, full knowledge of what (preferably 10 words or less) and the has been learned about a problem may not name and affiliation of the submitter be brought to bear on its solution. Costly are also necessary. Suggestions for up- research findings may go unused, valuable dates of published syntheses are also experience may be overlooked, and due welcome. The ACRP Project Panel consideration may not be given to recom- meets once each year to make the final mended practices for solving or alleviating selections. To be considered at the the problem. next annual meeting, all submissions There is information on nearly every should be received by October 2012. subject of concern to the airport industry. If a topic is not selected, the problem Much of it derives from research or from the statement must be resubmitted the fol- work of practitioners faced with problems lowing year to be reconsidered. in their day-to-day work. To provide a sys- tematic means for assembling and evaluat- ing such useful information and making it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Interested in writing a synthesis? For Board to undertake a continuing study. This details, see the Synthesis homepage study, ACRP Project A11-03, "Synthesis of ( Information Related to Airport Practices," grams/Public/ACRPSynthesisNew searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- Studies.aspx) under "New Topics." edge from all available sources and prepares

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concise, documented reports on specific topics. Re- Table 1 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES--In Progress ports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report as of December 2011 series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. No. Title S02-06 Airport Climate Change Adaptation THE SYNTHESIS PROGRAM and Resilience This synthesis series reports on current knowl- S04-07 Lessons Learned from Airport Safety edge and practice, in a compact format, without the Management Systems Pilot Study detailed directions usually found in handbooks or S04-08 Managing Aerial Firefighting Activities design manuals. Each report in the series provides a on Airports compendium of the best knowledge available on those S06-03 Exploring Airport Employee Commuting measures found to be most successful in resolving and Parking Strategies specific problems. S09-03 Subsurface Utility Engineering Information Management for Airports To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive S09-04 Issues with Use of Airfield LED manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowl- Light Fixtures edge, TRB employs a consultant to gather and analyze S10-07 Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports available information from numerous sources, includ- ing airport operations agencies. A panel of experts in the subject area is established to guide the consultant Table 2 ACRP SYNTHESIS STUDIES-- in organizing and evaluating the data collected on each 2012 Projects topic and to review the synthesis report. For each topic the project objectives are (1) to lo- No. Title cate and assemble documented information; (2) to learn what practice has been used for solving or alle- S01-05 Airport Organization Alignment viating the problems; (3) to identify all ongoing re- S01-06 Airport Customer Service Performance search; (4) to learn what problems remain largely un- Metrics S01-07 Conducting Airport Peer Reviews solved; (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the S02-07 Using Airport Contracts as Environmental useful information that is acquired; and (6) to dis- Performance Tools seminate the synthesis information to all who might S02-08 Environmental Assessment of High- benefit from it. Speed Rail vs. Air Transport Each synthesis is an immediately useful docu- S02-09 Airport Environmental Management ment that records practices that were acceptable within System Development Processes and the limitations of the knowledge available at the time Knowledge Gaps of its preparation. New knowledge can be expected S04-09 Model Mutual Aid Agreements for to be added to that which is now at hand and eventu- Airports ally the synthesis may need to be updated or redone. S06-04 Adapting New Maintenance Hires to the The readers and users of the syntheses are in the best Airport Environment position to know when this has occurred. Whenever S09-05 Repairing and Maintaining Airport you believe that a synthesis should be updated, it Parking Structure While in Use would be appreciated if you would contact TRB and S10-08 Conducting Aeronautical Events at propose a synthesis update by contacting the ACRP Airports Manager, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth S10-09 Wildlife Deterrents Using Population Management at Airports Street, NW, Washington D.C. 20001. Studies in Progress and Planned for 2012 M. Williams, by e-mail at, or by Work is currently under way on the topics listed phone at 202-334-3245. in Table 1. Topics selected for the 2012 program are listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should Available Publications be addressed to the project study manager, Gail R. Staba, by e-mail at, or by phone at The syntheses of airport practice that have been 202-334-2442, or the Synthesis Study Manager, Jon completed under this project are listed in Table 3. 2

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Table 3 PUBLISHED ACRP SYNTHESES No. Title/Pages 1 Innovative Finance and Alternative Sources of Revenue for Airports (2007) 43 pp., $34 2 Airport Aviation Activity Forecasting (2007) 32 pp., $34 3 General Aviation Safety and Security Practices (2007) 44 pp., $44 4 Counting Aircraft Operations at Small and Non-towered Airports (2007) 33 pp., $44 5 Airport Ground Access Mode Choice Models (2008) 104 pp., $39 6 Impact of Airport Pavement Deicing Products on Aircraft and Airfield Infrastructure (2008) 58 pp., $42 7 Airport Economic Impact Methods and Models (2008) 67 pp., $45 8 Common Use Facilities and Equipment at Airports (2008) 121 pp., $52 9 Effects of Aircraft Noise: Research Update on Select Topics (2008) 90 pp., $50 10 Airport Sustainability Practices (2008) 112 pp., $52 11 Impact of Airport Rubber Removal Techniques on Runways (2008) 108 pp., $52 12 Preventing AircraftVehicle Incidents During Winter Operations and Periods of Low Visibility (2008) 70 pp., $45 13 Effective Practices for Preparing Airport Improvement Program Benefit-Cost Analysis (2009) 65 pp., $43 14 Airport System Planning Practices (2009) 71 pp., $41 15 Identification of the Requirements and Training to Obtain Driving Privileges on Airfields (2009) 43 pp., $48 16 Compilation of Noise Programs in Areas Outside DNL 65 (2009) 104 pp., $51 17 Approaches to Integrating Airport Development and Federal Environmental Review Processes (2009) 34 pp., $38 18 Aviation Workforce Development Practices (2010) 36 pp., $39 19 Airport Revenue Diversification (2010) 55 pp., $41 20 Airport Terminal Facility Activation Techniques (2010) 127 pp., $58 21 Airport Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction (2010) 73 pp., $47 22 Common Airport Pavement Maintenance Practices (2011) 103 pp., $54 23 Bird Harassment, Repellent, and Deterrent Techniques for Use on and Near Airports (2011) 32 pp., $41 24 Strategies and Financing Opportunities for Airport Environmental Programs (2011) 218 pp., $70 25 Strategies for Reuse of Underutilized or Vacant Airport Facilities (2011) 62 pp., $46 26 Current Airport Inspection Practices Regarding FOD (Foreign Object Debris/Damage) (2011) 86 pp., $54 (continued) 3

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Table 3 (Continued) No. Title/Pages 27 Airport Self-Inspection Practices (2011) 111 pp., $54 28 Investigating Safety Impacts of Energy Technologies on Airports and Aviation (2011) 39 pp., $41 29 Ramp Safety Practices (2011) 59 pp., $46 30 Airport Insurance Coverage and Risk Management Practices (2011) 51 pp., $43 31 Airline and AirlineAirport Consortiums to Manage Terminals and Equipment (2011) 596 pp., $98 Copies of these syntheses can be obtained from The schedule for ACRP Syntheses is as follows: the Publications Office, Transportation Research Solicitation for synthesis topics--JulyAugust Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., Topic selection--October 20001; by calling 202/334-3213; and through the Topic panel formation--DecemberJanuary Internet at: Please send check orders to: TRB, Dept. 289, Washington, Solicit letters of interest for authors--February DC 20055 or fax to: 202/334-2519. All ACRP re- Topic panel meetings--FebruaryMarch ports are available as online publications (http://www. Research Contract Start--AprilMay Draft Synthesis Reports--September Reports.aspx) and may be downloaded free of charge. November Final Synthesis Reports--MarchMay Publication--Summer Selection of Topics The following factors are considered in the selec- ACRP Project Panel A11-03 meets each year to tion process for synthesis topics: select topics for study using funds from the upcoming fiscal year. The membership of this committee is The topic should address a problem that is wide- given in Table 4. Current funding allows for initia- spread enough to generate broad interest in the tion of about seven syntheses per year. These, plus synthesis. some alternate topics, are selected by the committee The topic should be timely and critical with at its annual project meeting. respect to safety, economic, or social impact. Table 4 ACRP PROJECT PANEL A11-03 Name Affiliation Chair Julie Kenfield Jacobs Engineering, Inc. Member Randall P. Burdette Virginia Department of Aviation Member Kevin C. Dolliole Unison Consulting, Inc. Member Linda Howard Independent Aviation Consultant Member Arlyn Purcell Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Member Burr Stewart Burrst, Seattle, Washington Liaison Paul Devoti Federal Aviation Administration Liaison John L. Collins Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Liaison A.J. Muldoon ACINorth America TRB Liaison Christine Gerencher Transportation Research Board ACRP Synthesis Staff Gail R. Staba Transportation Research Board ACRP Staff Michael R. Salamone Transportation Research Board 4

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The topic is appropriate if current practice is assigned by the panel. A topic panel consisting nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to of practitioners and researchers is formed for each agency, or if the validity of some practices topic. At its first meeting, this topic panel thoroughly appears to be questionable. discusses the topic, refines the scope, suggests The quality and quantity of useful available sources of information, and identifies and selects po- information should indicate a need to organize tential topic consultants based on expressions of and compress that which has already been interest received in response to an industry-wide learned and written on the topic. solicitation. The topic should not be one where ongoing Following this meeting, a consultant is hired to research or other activities in progress might gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and be expected to render the synthesis obsolete draft a report. Typically, the agreement covers a pe- shortly after completion. riod of six to seven months. Information gathering and preparation of the first draft of the synthesis re- Each year more topics are suggested for the com- port takes about four months. This draft is reviewed mittee's consideration than can be programmed for by the topic panel with the consultant, often at the study in Project A11-03. Nevertheless, the continued second panel meeting. A revised draft is then pre- success of this project depends on a constant supply pared by the consultant. Subsequent drafts and of worthy synthesis topics. The interest of those who meetings are scheduled, if needed, although this have recommended topics is sincerely appreciated, rarely occurs. and they are urged to continue. Candidate topics are After the staff is substantially satisfied with the re- suggested by members of the panel and by a vari- port, a final draft is sent to members of the topic panel ety of other sources, including airport, airline, and for their last chance to review the report and then state aviation personnel; FAA and TRB commit- ACRP Project Committee A11-03 for final approval. tees; aviation organizations; and other practitioners The report is subsequently published as an ACRP and researchers. Synthesis of Airport Practice. Conduct of the Studies Index of Topic Studies Following the project panel's selection of top- Table 5 is a key word index of published syn- ics, studies are initiated in the order of priority theses. Table 5 INDEX TO SYNTHESES AND STUDIES (2011) Access control 3 Airport operations 3, 4, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 26, Aeronautical revenue 1, 19 27, 28, 29, 30 Aircraft noise 9, 16 Airport planning 14, 22, 28, 31 Airfield driving 12, 15 Airport system planning 14 Airport access/egress 5, 15 Airport terminal facility activation 20 Airport budgeting 22, 31 Aviation activity forecasting 2, 4, 5 Airport construction 20, 21 Aviation noise abatement 16 Airport design 20, 21 Aviation operations 12, 28 Airport development environmental review 7, 8, 10, Baggage 8 13, 16, 17, 21 Benefit-cost 13 Airport environment 10, 17, 21, 24 Airport facilities 25 Capital financing 1, 21 Airport human resources 12, 15, 18, 20 Commercial development 1, 21, 25 Airport Improvement Program (AIP) 2, 13, 14, 24 Common Use 8, 19 Airport maintenance 11, 21, 22, 26 Common Use Passenger Processing Systems (CUPPS) Airport management 23, 30, 31 8, 19 (continued) 5

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Table 5 (Continued) Common Use Self-Service (CUSS) 8, 19 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 9, 17, 24 Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) 9, 16 National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) Consortiums 31 2, 7, 13, 14 Contracting 31 Noise 9, 16 Corrosion damage 6 Non-aeronautical revenue 1, 19 Cost recovery 4, 19, 21, 25 Counting aircraft 4 Passenger facility charge 1, 20 Passenger services 8, 19 Data collection 26, 29 Pavement 6, 22 Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 9, 16 Pavement deicing 6 Debris detection 26 Performance standards 31 Debris removal 26 Preservation, pavement 22 Privatization 1 Economic development 7, 10, 13, 19, 25 Economic impact 7, 25 Ramps 29 Energy audit 10, 19, 21 Rehabilitation, pavement 22 Energy management system 10, 19, 21 Reuse 25 Energy technologies 28 Revenue 1, 13, 19, 25 Environmental assessment 13, 17 Risk financing 30 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) 17 Risk management 30 Environmental initiatives 24 Rubber removal 11 Environmental practices 10, 11, 21 Runway safety 3, 11, 12, 15, 23, 26 Safety 3, 11, 12, 15, 23, 26, 27, 28, 29 Facility activation 20 Safety management system 29 Federal Interagency Committee on Noise (FICON) Schultz Curve 9 9, 16 Security 3 Financing 23 Signage 8 Foreign object debris/damage 26, 29 Skid resistance 11 Sound Exposure Level (SEL) 9, 16 General aviation 1, 3, 4, 17, 19, 20, 21, 26 Sustainability 10, 14 Ground service equipment 29 Terminal area forecast 2 Infrastructure 6 Training 3, 12, 15, 18, 20, 27, 29 Innovative finance 1 Travel forecasting 2, 5, 13, 14 Inspection practices 26, 27 Vehicle-aircraft incidents 12 Low visibility 12 Voice over IP (VoIP) 8, 20 Management systems 8, 21, 22 Waterblasting 11 Master plans 17 Wildlife control 23 Mode choice/mode of transportation 5 Winter operations 6, 12 Modeling 5, 7 Workforce development 3, 12, 15, 18, 20 6

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Subscriber Categories: Aviation Energy Environment Education and Training Finance Maintenance and Preservation Safety and Human Factors Terminals and Facilities These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.