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January 2012 COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration CTBSSP Manager: Donna L. Vlasak Research Results Digest 9 COMMERCIAL TRUCK AND BUS SAFETY SYNTHESIS PROGRAM: A STATUS REPORT This is a staff digest of the progress and status of the Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program, which is administered by the Transportation Research Board. Individual studies for the program are managed by Donna Vlasak, Manager, Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program. BACKGROUND communities. Major responsibilities of the expert panel are to provide technical guid- The Commercial Truck and Bus Safety ance. The CTBSSP committee's responsi- Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) is a cooper- bilities are: (1) provide general oversight of ative research program sponsored by the the CTBSSP and its procedures, (2) annually Federal Motor Carrier Safety Adminis- select synthesis topics based on an industry- tration (FMCSA) and administered by wide solicitation, (3) refine synthesis scopes, the Transportation Research Board. The (4) select researchers to prepare each syn- program began in 2002 in support of the thesis, (5) review products, and (6) make FMCSA's safety research programs. publication recommendations. The program initiates several synthesis studies annually that address concerns in the INTRODUCTION area of commercial truck and bus safety. A synthesis report summarizes existing prac- Administrators, commercial truck and tice in a specific technical area based typi- bus carriers, government regulators, and cally on a literature search and a survey of researchers continually face problems on relevant organizations (e.g., state DOTs, enforcement agencies, commercial truck Suggestions for synthesis topics may be and bus companies, or other organizations submitted at any time at the TRB website. appropriate for the specific topic). The Navigate to www.trb.org, click on "pro- program is modeled after the successful grams," and "synthesis truck and bus synthesis programs currently operated as safety," and find the link for "suggest a part of the National Cooperative Highway topic." Research Program (NCHRP) and the Tran- sit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). Topics suggested must be accompanied by a brief scope statement, including a discus- The primary users of the syntheses are prac- sion of the problem (a paragraph or two). titioners who work on issues or problems A title (preferably 10 words or fewer) and using diverse approaches in their individual the name and affiliation of the submitter settings. are also necessary. The CTBSSP Program The program is overseen by an expert Oversight Panel meets periodically to select topic panel and committee representing the new topics based on funding available. truck and bus safety, labor, and insurance

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which much information already exists, either in viating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; documented form or in terms of undocumented (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; experience and practice. Unfortunately, this infor- and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the use- mation is frequently fragmented, scattered, and ful information that is acquired. underevaluated. Often it is unknown to the person Each synthesis is an immediately useful docu- normally responsible for making decisions related ment that records practices that were acceptable to the topic. As a consequence, full knowledge of within the limitations of the knowledge available at what has been learned about a problem is frequently the time of its preparation. As advancement contin- not brought to bear on its solution. Costly research ues, new knowledge can be expected to be added to findings may go unused, valuable experience may be that now on hand; eventually the synthesis may need overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to be updated or redone. to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of Selection of Topics concern to commercial truck and bus safety. Much The CTBSSP Program Oversight Committee of this information has resulted from both research meets periodically to select topics for study as funds and the successful application of solutions to the are made available. The membership of this panel challenging issues faced by practitioners in their daily is given in Table 1. Current funding allows for initi- work. Because there has been no systematic means ation of approximately two syntheses per year. for compiling such useful information and making The following factors are considered in the selec- it available to the entire commercial truck and bus tion process for synthesis topics: safety community, the CTBSSP was established The problem should be widespread enough to to undertake a series of studies to search out and generate broad interest in the synthesis. synthesize useful knowledge from all available The problem should be timely and critical. sources and to prepare documented reports on The problem is appropriate if current practice current practices in the subject areas of concern. is non-uniform or inconsistent from agency Reports from this endeavor constitute the CTBSSP to agency or if the validity of some practices synthesis series, which collects and assembles the appears to be questionable. various forms of information into single concise The quality and quantity of useful available documents pertaining to specific commercial truck information should indicate a need to organize and bus safety problems or sets of closely related and compress that which has already been problems. learned and written on the topic. The topic should not be one for which ongoing research or other activities in progress might THE CTBSSP be expected to render the synthesis obsolete shortly after completion. This synthesis series reports on various practices The continued success of this program depends in specific technical areas. Each document is a com- on a constant supply of worthy synthesis topics. pendium of the best knowledge available on mea- Candidate topics are suggested by members of the sures found to be successful in resolving specific program oversight panel and various other sources, problems. To develop these syntheses in a compre- including commercial truck and bus carriers; reg- hensive manner and to ensure inclusion of signifi- ulatory enforcement agencies; state DOTs; equip- cant knowledge, available information assembled ment and service suppliers; research organiza- from numerous sources, including a large number of tions; FMCSA; relevant associations such as the relevant organizations, is analyzed. The program over- Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance, American Bus sight panel guides the researchers in organizing and Association, American Trucking Associations, and evaluating data collected on each topic and reviews Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association; each synthesis report. organized labor; and TRB committees. The interest For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to of those who have recommended topics is sincerely locate and assemble documented information; (2) to appreciated, and they are urged to continue to sug- learn what practice has been used for solving or alle- gest topics. 2

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Table 1 CTBSSP PROGRAM OVERSIGHT PANEL Name Affiliation Chair Norm Littler American Bus Association, Washington, DC Member Lamont Byrd International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Washington DC Member B. Scott Claffey Great West Casualty Company, Bloomington, ID Member Christopher Crean Peter Pan Bus Lines, Inc., Springfield, MA Member Alessandro "Alex" Guariento MV Transportation, Inc., Plano, TX Member Stephen A. Keppler Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance, Greenbelt, MD Member Brenda Lantz North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND Member Dean Newell Maverick Transportation LLC, N. Little Rock, AR Member David Osiecki American Trucking Associations, Alexandria, VA Member E. Jan Skouby Missouri Department of Transportation, Jefferson City, MO Member Tom Weakley Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association Foundation, Grain Valley, MO Member Greer Woodruff J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc., Lowell, AR Member Christopher Zeilinger Community Transport Association of America, Washington, DC Liaison Albert Alvarez Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC Liaison Martin Walker Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington, DC Liaison Ewa Flom Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC Liaison John C. Nicholas Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC Liaison Greg Hull American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Liaison Leo Penne American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Liaison Charles W. "Chuck" Niessner Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC Liaison Richard Pain Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC Conduct of the Studies be addressed to Donna Vlasak, CTBSSP Manager (e-mail: dvlasak@nas.edu and 202/334-2974). Throughout the year, following the program oversight panel's selection of topics, studies are initiated in the order of priority assigned by the Available Publications panel. The syntheses completed under this project are For each topic, a panel of 4 to 6 topic experts listed in Table 3. Electronic copies of these syntheses is appointed, including at least one oversight com- can be found at http://www.trb.org/Publications/ mittee member. The expert panel approves the PubsCTBSSPSynthesisReports.aspx. Hard copies contractor or subcontractor who will perform the work. The expert panel reviews the scope, work plan, report outline, and questionnaire, and first and second draft reports. Teleconferences are held Table 2 SYNTHESIS STUDIES--In Progress as of as needed; face-to-face meetings are not normally December 2011 required. The first draft of the report is reviewed No. Title by the program oversight panel. A revised final synthesis report is subsequently submitted. This MC-20 Operator Drug- and Alcohol-Testing revised final report is then published in the CTBSSP Across Modes synthesis series. MC-22 Potential Safety Benefits of Motor Carrier Operational Efficiencies MC-23 Driver Selection Tests and Measurement Studies in Progress as of December 2011 MC-24 Distracted Driving--Successful Practices for Commercial Vehicle Drivers Work is currently under way on the topics MC-25 Safety Management in Small Companies listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should 3

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Table 3 PUBLISHED CTBSSP SYNTHESES No. Title/Pages/Price 1 Effective Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Management Techniques (2003) 100 pp., $17 2 Security Measures in the Commercial Trucking and Bus Industries (2003) 50 pp., $15 3 Highway/Heavy Vehicle Interaction (2003) 96 pp., $21 4 Individual Differences and the "High-Risk" Commercial Driver (2004) 88 pp., $22 5 Training of Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers (2004) 46 pp., $19 6 Operational Differences and Similarities Among the Motorcoach, School Bus, and Trucking Industries (2005) 47 pp., $15 7 Motorcoach Industry Hours of Service and Fatigue Management Techniques (2005) 46 pp., $15 8 Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Safety Belt Usage (2005) 52 pp., $16 9 Literature Review on Health and Fatigue Issues Associated with Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Hours of Work (2005) 196 pp., $29 10 Alternative Truck and Bus Inspection Strategies (2006) 43 pp., $31 11 Impact of Behavior-Based Safety Techniques on Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers (2007) 67 pp., $48 12 Commercial Motor Vehicle Carrier Safety Management Certification (2007) 52 pp., $45 13 Effectiveness of Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Training Curricula and Delivery Methods (2007) 33 pp., $34 14 The Role of Safety Culture in Preventing Commercial Motor Vehicle Crashes (2007) 49 pp., $36 15 Health and Wellness Programs for Commercial Drivers (2007) 80 pp., $43 16 Safety Impacts of Speed Limiter Device Installations on Commercial Trucks and Buses (2008) 43 pp., $37 17 Special Safety Concerns of School Bus Drivers (2009) 43 pp., $38 18 Older Commercial Drivers: Do They Pose a Safety Risk? (2010) 28 pp., $37 19 Effects of Psychoactive Chemicals on Commercial Driver Health and Performance: Stimulants, Hypnotics, Nutritional Aids, and Other Supplements (2011) 123 pp., $54 of these syntheses can be obtained from the EST MondayFriday; and through the Internet at Publications Office, Transportation Research Board, www.trb.org/bookstore. Please send check orders 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20001; to TRB, Dept. 289, Washington, D.C., 20055 or by calling 202/334-3213, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. fax to 202/334-2519. 4

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-22352-2 90000 Subscriber Categories: Motor Carriers Public Transportation Safety and Human Factors 9 780309 223522 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.