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January 2012 TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration Responsible Senior Program Officer: Gwen Chisholm Smith Research Results Digest 104 SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION RELATED TO TRANSIT PROBLEMS This is a staff digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems," for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Individual studies for the project are managed by Donna L. Vlasak, Senior Program Officer, with assistance from Jon M. Williams, Program Director, Synthesis Studies, serving under the Studies and Special Programs Division of the Transportation Research Board, Stephen R. Godwin, Director. BACKGROUND The Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram (TCRP) was established in 1992. The U.S. Department of Transportation pro- You can submit your recommendation posed the TCRP, and it was authorized in at: http://www.trb.org/SynthesisPro the Intermodal Surface Transportation Effi- grams/Suggest.aspx under "Synthesis ciency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. The program Topic Submittals." Topics suggested was reauthorized in the Transportation Eq- must be accompanied by a brief (one or uity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) and two paragraphs) scope statement, in- the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient cluding a discussion of the problem. A Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for title (preferably 10 words or less) and Users (SAFETEA-LU). On May 13, 1992, the name and affiliation of the submitter a memorandum agreement outlining op- erating procedures was executed by three are also necessary. Identification of in- cooperating organizations: the Federal Tran- formation sources is appreciated. If a sit Administration (FTA); the National topic is not selected, it must be resub- Academies, acting through the Transporta- mitted the following year to be consid- tion Research Board (TRB); and the Tran- ered. Annually, synthesis topics are sit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), typically due by the end of March. The a non-profit educational and research orga- TCRP Oversight Panel for the project nization established by the American Pub- meets in May/June to select new topics lic Transportation Association (APTA). The based on funding available. memorandum agreement was updated on January 12, 1999. Interested in writing a synthesis? For details contact Donna L. Vlasak by INTRODUCTION e-mail at dvlasak@nas.edu or by phone at 202/334-2974 or Jon Williams at Transit administrators, engineers, and jwilliams@nas.edu or by phone at 202/ researchers often face problems for which 334-3245. information already exists, either in docu- mented form or as undocumented experi-

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ence and practice. This information may be frag- its preparation. As the processes of advancement con- mented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- tinue, new knowledge can be expected to be added to quence, full knowledge of what has been learned that which is now on hand; eventually the synthesis about a problem may not be brought to bear on its may need to be updated or redone. If you believe that solution. Costly research findings may go unused, a synthesis should be updated, it would be appreciated valuable experience may be overlooked, and due if you would contact TRB and let us know. consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. Selection of Topics There is information on nearly every subject of TCRP Project Panel J-7 meets each year (typically concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives in May) to select topics for study using funds from the from research or from the work of practitioners faced upcoming fiscal year. The membership of this com- with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide mittee is given in Table 1. Current funding allows for a systematic means for assembling and evaluating initiation of approximately seven syntheses per year. such useful information and to make it available to The following factors are considered in the se- the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative lection process for synthesis topics: Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation The problem should be widespread enough to Research Board to undertake a continuing study. generate broad interest in the synthesis. This study, TCRP Project J-7, "Synthesis of Informa- The topic should be timely and critical with tion Related to Transit Problems," searches out and respect to economic impact, safety, or social synthesizes useful knowledge from all available impact. sources and prepares concise, documented reports on The topic is appropriate if current practice is specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute nonuniform or inconsistent from agency to a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. agency, or if the validity of some practices appears to be questionable. The quality and quantity of useful available THE SYNTHESIS PROGRAM information should indicate a need to organize This synthesis series reports on current knowl- and compress that which has already been edge and practice, in a compact format, without the learned and written on the topic. detailed directions usually found in handbooks or The topic should not be one where ongoing design manuals. Each report in the series provides a research or other activities in progress might compendium of the current knowledge available on be expected to render the synthesis obsolete those measures found to be the successful in resolv- shortly after completion. ing specific problems. To develop these syntheses The continued success of this project depends on in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion a constant supply of worthy synthesis topics solicited of significant knowledge, TRB employs a consul- annually from a variety of sources, including transit tant to gather and analyze available information officials, equipment and service suppliers, research or- from numerous sources, including a large number ganizations, FTA, APTA, and TRB committees. The of transit agencies. A panel of experts in the subject interest of those who have recommended topics is sin- area is established to guide the consultants in orga- cerely appreciated, and they are urged to continue. nizing and evaluating data collected on each topic and to review the synthesis report. For each topic, the project objectives are (1) to lo- Conduct of the Studies cate and assemble documented information; (2) to Throughout the year, following the J-7 project learn what practice has been used for solving or alle- panel's selection of topics, studies are initiated in the viating problems; (3) to identify all ongoing research; order of priority assigned by the committee. A panel (4) to learn what problems remain largely unsolved; consisting of practitioners and researchers is formed and (5) to organize, evaluate, and document the use- for each topic. At its first meeting, this topic panel ful information that is acquired. thoroughly discusses the topic, refines the tentative Each synthesis is an immediately useful document scope, suggests sources of information, and selects that records practices that were acceptable within the the consultant based on expression of interest re- limitations of the knowledge available at the time of ceived in response to an industry-wide solicitation. 2

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Table 1 TCRP Project Panel J-7 Name Affiliation Chair Dwight A. Ferrell Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Member Debra W. Alexander Capital Area Transportation Authority, Lansing, MI Member Donna DeMartino San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA Member Mark W. Fuhrmann Metro Transit, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN Member Robert H. Irwin Consultant, Sooke, BC, Canada Member Jeanne Krieg Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA Member Paul J. Larrousse National Transit Institute, New Brunswick, NJ Member David A. Lee Connecticut Transit, Hartford, CT Member Frank T. Martin Atkins, Tallahassee, FL Member Bradford J. Miller Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority (PSTA), St. Petersburg, FL Member Hayward M. Seymore, III Kitsap Transit, Bremerton, WA Member Frank Tobey First Transit, Inc., Moscow, TN Member Pam Ward Consultant, Ottumwa, IA Liaison Michael Baltes Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. Liaison Jarrett Stoltzfus Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. Liaison Kevin Dow American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. Liaison Jennifer A. Rosales Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. Following this meeting, an agreement is negoti- ated with the consultant to gather information on the topic, synthesize it, and draft a report. Typically, the agreement covers a period of 9 months. Information Table 2 Synthesis Studies--In Progress as of January 2012 gathering and preparation of the first draft of the synthesis report usually takes 5 months. This draft is No. Title then reviewed by the topic panel with the consultant, often at a second panel meeting. Subsequent drafts SA-26 Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free and a meeting are scheduled if needed, although this Transit Systems rarely occurs. SA-27 Off-Board Transit Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Purchase Verification After the staff is substantially satisfied with the re- SA-28 Use of Electronic On-Street Signage in port, a final draft is sent to the members of the TCRP Transit Project Panel J-7 for their approval. At the same time, SA-29 Energy Savings Strategies for Transit members from the topic panel have their last Agencies chance to review the report. Comments from these SB-19 Ridesharing as a Complement to Transit reviews are incorporated into the final report, SB-20 Proactive Use of Social Media in Public which is usually published as a TCRP Synthesis of Transportation Transit Practice. SB-21 Transit Station and Stop Adoption Programs SB-22 Use of Market Research Panels in Transit SB-23 Integrating Passenger Ferry Service with Studies in Progress as of January 2012 Mass Transit SD-04 Rail Transit Track Inspection Practices Work is currently under way on the topics SE-06 Elevator and Escalator Maintenance listed in Table 2. Questions on these topics should and Safety Practices be addressed to the Project Study Manager, Donna SF-15 Practices for Wayside Rail Transit Worker L. Vlasak (e-mail: dvlasak@nas.edu and 202/ Protection 334-2974) or the Synthesis Studies Manager, SF-16 Improving Transit Safety Through Jon Williams (e-mail: jwilliams@nas.edu and Rewards and Discipline SF-17 Transit Operator Distraction Policies 202/334-3245). 3

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Available Publications http://www.trb.org/bookstore. Please send check orders to: TRB, Dept. 289, Washington, D.C., 20055 The Syntheses of Transit Practice that have been or fax to: 202/334-2519. completed under this project are listed in Table 3. Copies of these syntheses can be obtained from the Index of Topic Studies Publications Office, Transportation Research Board, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20001; by Table 4 is a key word index of published synthe- calling 202/334-3213; and through the Internet at: ses and studies currently in progress. Table 3 Published TCRP Syntheses No. Title/Pages/Price 1 Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Buses (1993) 48 pp., $16.00 2 Low-Floor Transit Buses (1994) 43 pp., $12.00 3 Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Employee Performance (1994) 44 pp., $12.00 4 Integration of Bicycles and Transit (1994) 58 pp., $12.00 5 Management Information Systems (1994) 77 pp., $19.00 6 The Role of Performance-Based Measures in Allocating Funding for Transit Operations (1994) 52 pp., $11.00 7 Regulatory Impacts on Design and Retrofit of Bus Maintenance Facilities (1994) 50 pp., $12.00 8 Retrofit of Buses to Meet Clean Air Regulations (1994) 48 pp., $12.00 9 Waste Control Practices at Bus Maintenance Facilities (1995) 26 pp., $10.00 10 Bus Route Evaluation Standards (1995) 54 pp., $12.00 11 System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios (1995) 46 pp., $12.00 12 Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions (1995) 48 pp., $14.00 13 Risk Management for Small and Medium Transit Agencies (1995) 31 pp., $13.00 14 Innovative Suburb-to-Suburb Transit Practices (1995) 50 pp., $14.00 15 System-Specific Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios (1995) 43 pp., $13.00 16 Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors (1996) 45 pp., $13.00 17 Customer Information at Bus Stops (1996) 64 pp., $18.00 18 Bus Occupant Safety (1996) 55 pp., $15.00 19 Passenger Transfer System Review (1996) 37 pp., $14.00 20 Transit-Focused Development (1997) 55 pp., $16.00 21 Improving Transit Security (1997) 36 pp., $15.00 22 Monitoring Bus Maintenance Performance (1997) 48 pp., $16.00 23 Inspection Policy and Procedures for Rail Transit Tunnels and Underground Structures (1997) 95 pp., $25.00 24 AVL Systems for Bus Transit (1997) 47 pp., $16.00 25 Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements (1997) 34 pp., $15.00 26 Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices (1997) 29 pp., $14.00 27 Emergency Preparedness for Transit Terrorism (1997) 73 pp., $21.00 28 Managing Transit Construction Contract Claims (1998) 50 pp., $17.00 29 Passenger Counting Technologies and Procedures (1998) 50 pp., $23.00 30 ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices (1998) 38 pp., $16.00 31 Paratransit Contracting and Service Delivery Methods (1998) 35 pp., $16.00 32 Transit Advertising Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures (1998) 58 pp., $20.00 33 Practices in Assuring Employee Availability (1999) 69 pp., $27.00 34 Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring (2000) 62 pp., $27.00 35 Information Technology Update for Transit (2000) 98 pp., $31.00 36 Identifying and Reducing Fraudulent Third Party Tort Claims Against Public Transit Agencies (2000) 58 pp., $25.00 37 Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Environment (2001) 48 pp., $26.00 38 Electronic Surveillance Technology on Transit Vehicles (2001) 57 pp., $28.00 39 Transportation on College and University Campuses (2001) 62 pp., $28.00 40 A Challenged Employment System: Hiring, Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators (2001) 72 pp., $29.00 41 The Use of Small Buses in Transit Service (2002) 72 pp., $15.00 42 Use of Flexible Funds for Transit Under ISTEA and TEA-21 (2002) 40 pp., $15.00 4

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Table 3 (Continued ) No. Title/Pages/Price 43 Effective Use of Transit Websites (2002) 79 pp., $16.00 44 Training for On-Board Bus Electronic (2002) 63 pp., $15.00 45 Customer-Focused Transit (2002) 100 pp., $17.00 46 Diversity Training Initiatives (2003) 59 pp., $15.00 47 Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transit Leadership Practices (2003) 91 pp., $17.00 48 Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems (2003) 61 pp., $15.00 49 Yield to Bus Programs--State of the Practice (2003) In Press 50 Use of Rear-Facing Position for Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses (2003) 42 pp., $14.00 51 Transit Advertising Sales Agreements (2004) 99 pp., $18.00 52 Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs (2004) 80 pp., $17.00 53 Operational Experiences with Flexible Services in Transit Systems (2004) 57 pp., $16.00 54 Maintenance Productivity Practices (2004) 92 pp., $18.00 55 Geographic Information Systems Applications in Transit (2004) 60 pp., $16.00 56 Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation (2004) 74 pp., $16.00 57 Computer-Aided Scheduling and Dispatch in Demand-Responsive Transit Services (2004) 79 pp., $17.00 58 Emergency Response Procedures for Natural Gas Transit Vehicles (2005) 53 pp., $15.00 59 Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies (2005) 44 pp., $15.00 60 Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit (2005) 49 pp., $16.00 61 Maintenance Staffing Levels for Light Rail Transit (2005) 41 pp., $16.00 62 Integration of Bicycles and Transit (2005) 70 pp., $17.00 63 On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques (2005) 91 pp., $19.00 64 Bus Use of Shoulders (2006) 91 pp., $35.00 65 Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs (2006) 48 pp., $31.00 66 Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods (2006) 51 pp., $31.00 67 Bus Transit Service in Land Development Planning (2006) 62 pp., $32.00 68 Methods of Rider Communication (2006) 95 pp., $35.00 69 Web-Based Survey Techniques (2006) 104 pp., $35.00 70 Mobile Data Terminals (2007) 150 pp., $47.00 71 Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs (2007) 52 pp., $36.00 72 Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet (2007) 61 pp., $38.00 73 AVL Systems for Bus Transit Update (2007) 104 pp., $50.00 74 Policies and Practices for Effectively and Efficiently Meeting ADA Paratransit Demand (2008) 54 pp., $40.00 75 Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service (2008) 72 pp., $45.00 76 Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services (2008) 48 pp., $40.00 77 Passenger Counting Systems (2008) 73 pp., $45.00 78 Transit Systems in College and University Communities (2008) 88 pp., $47.00 79 Light Rail Vehicle Collisions with Vehicles at Signalized Intersections (2008) 40 pp., $37.00 80 Transit Security Update (2008) 141 pp., $57.00 81 Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses (2010) 71 pp., $47.00 82 Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees (2010) 81 pp., $49.00 83 Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic (2010) 202 pp., $68.00 84 Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit (2010) 77 pp. $49.00 85 Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Transit Planning and Operations (2010) 63 pp., $43.00 86 Relationships Between Streetcars and the Built Environment (2010) 52 pp., $42.00 87 Practices in the Development and Deployment of Downtown Circulators (2011) 113 pp., $57.00 88 Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains (2011) 162 pp., $63.00 89 Public Participation Strategies for Transit (2011) 87 pp., $54.00 90 Video Surveillance Uses by Rail Transit Agencies (2011), 79 pp., $52.00 91 Use and Deployment of Mobile Device Technology for Real-Time Transit Information (2011) 92 Transit Asset Condition Reporting (2011) 93 Practices to Protect Bus Operators from Passenger Assault (2011) 94 Innovative Rural Transit Services (2011) Track Maintenance Costs on Rail Transit Properties (2008) (Web-Only Doc) 43 5

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Table 4 Index to TCRP Synthesis and Studies Absenteeism 33, 52 Rapid Transit 75, 83 Accidents Retrofitting 8 Light Rail 79 Route Evaluation Standards 10 Advertising Service Line and Cleaning 12 Buses/Trains, on 32, 51 Shoulders 64 Stations/Stops 32, 51 Small Buses 41 Websites 43 Stops, Customer Information at 17, 37, 48 Advisory Committees 85 Strollers, Integration with 88 Alternative Fuels 1 Suburb-to-Suburb Service 14 Safe Operating Procedures, Buses 1 System-Specific Spare Ratios 11 Asset Management 92 Traffic Operations 49 Automated Onboard Systems, Vehicle Health 81 Waste Control at Maintenance Facilities 9 Automated Vehicle Location (AVL) Systems 24, 34, Bus Field Supervisors 48, 53, 55, 73, 77, 91, 93, 94 Changing Roles and Practices 16 Automatic Passenger Counters (APC) 29, 66, 73, 77 Bus Garages (see Bus Maintenance Facilities) Automatic Vehicle Monitoring 24, 34, 48, 53, 55, 73 Bus Maintenance Facilities Cleaning 12 Bicycles Regulations on Design and Retrofit of 7 Integration with Buses 4, 62 Waste Control 9 Integration with Ferries 4, 62 Bus Route Evaluation Standards 10, 14 Integration with Rail 4, 62 Bus Stops Biodiesel 72 Information at 17, 37, 48 Buff Load (see Compression Requirements) Locations 53 Built Environment 86 Safety Design 18 Buses Signs 17, 37 Alternative Fuels 1 Compressed Natural Gas 1 Claims (see Liability) Ethanol 1 Circulators 87 Liquefied Natural Gas 1 Codes (see Regulations, Standards) Liquefied Petroleum Gas 1 College and University Campuses 39, 78 Methanol 1 Communications Automated Vehicle Location Systems 24, 34, 48, Riders 68, 89 53, 55, 94 Commuter Benefits, 82 Bicycle, Integration with 4, 62, 88 Compression Requirements Biodiesel 72 Light Rail Vehicles 25 Bypass Lanes 83 Computer-Aided Dispatch 73, 91, 93 Cleaning 12 Congestion Mitigation 84 College and University Campuses 39, 78 Construction Contract Claims 28 Downtown Circulators 87 Contracts Driver Availability 33, 40, 52 Advertising 32, 51 Electronic Equipment 44 Disputes and Resolution 28 Fare Collection 26 Information Technology Services 35 Field Supervisors 16 Maintenance 54 Fuel and Fluid Storage 7 Paratransit Services 31, 71 Higher Capacity 75 Customer Service 43, 45 Intercity 94 Automatic Vehicle Location 73 Low-Floor 2 Awareness 43, 45, 48, 49, 68 Maintenance 54, 81 Bicycles on Transit 62 Maintenance Facilities 7, 9, 12 Complaint Resolution 38 Natural Gas 58 Computer-Aided Scheduling and Dispatch 57, 91 Occupant Safety 18, 38, 50, 58 Employee Fare Programs 82 Passenger Transfer 19 Geographic Information Systems 55 Rail, Integration with 83 Information at Bus Stops 17, 48 6

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Table 4 (Continued ) Management Role 16, 47 Evasion 93 Passengers with Disabilities 30, 31, 37, 50, 53, Unlimited Access Systems 39 60, 74 Ferries Passengers with Strollers, Carts and Other Large Bicycles, Integration with 4, 62 Items 88 Fleet Management 15, 24, 35 Public Participation 89 Flexible Transit Service 53 Service Line and Cleaning 12 Fixed-Route Transit 66, 74 Surveys 63, 69 Fraudulent Claims 36 Transfers 19 Fuel Systems 72 Funding Allocation Design Bicycle Services 62 Bicycle Storage and Transport 62 Circulators 87 Bus Infrastructure 92 Clean Air Regulations, to Meet 8 Maintenance 53 Low-Floor Transit Buses 2 Medicaid Transportation Programs 65 Safety 18, 50, 58, 93 Performance-Based 56 Bus Maintenance Facilities 7 Role of Performance-Based Measures 6 Bus Stops 18 Spare Bus Ratios, System-Specific 11 Engines 7, 8 Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios 15 Regulatory, Impacts on 7, 8 Surveillance 90 Small Buses 41 Systems Costs 48 Streetcar Systems 86 Under ISTEA and TEA-21 42 Surveillance Technology 38 Funding, Flexible 42 Survey Questionnaires 63, 69 Tunnels 23 Geographic Information Systems 55 Websites 43 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Dispatch 57 Bus 24, 53, 73, 78, 91 Bus 53, 60, Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84 Diversity Training 46 Driver Incentive Programs Health and Wellness 52 Employee 3, 33, 52, 82 Hiring 40 Information Technology (IT) 5, 35, 43, 57 Performance Evaluation 40 Automatic Vehicle Location 73 Retention 40 Geographic Information Systems 55 Training 40, 44, 45, 49, 57 Global Positioning Systems 70 Dynamic Message Signs 91 Mobile Device Technology 91 Supervisors, Impact on 16 Electronic Surveillance 38, 90 Web-Based Surveys 69 Emergency Procedures Infrastructure 92 Bus 58 Inspection Emissions, Greenhouse Gas 84 Bus Maintenance 81 Employee Assistance Programs 16, 52, 82 Rail Tunnels and Underground Structures 23 Environment, The Track 95 Clean Air Act 1, 7, 8 Integrated Service 76 Emissions, Biodiesel 72 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84 Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) 35 Waste Control 9 Automated Vehicle Location Systems 24, 34, 48, 53, 55, 73, 77, 91 Fare Collection Automated Vehicle Monitoring (AVM) 24, 34, 48, Bus 26, 34 53, 55, 73 Downtown Circulators 87 Automatic Passenger Counters 29, 34, 77 Electronic Registering Fareboxes (ERFs) 29 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) 24, 53 7

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Table 4 (Continued ) Transfer Automation 19 Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems 43, Mobile Data Terminals 70 48, 91 Mobile Device Technology 91 Planning Internet 43 Advisory Committees 85 Strategic 59 Liability Policy Development Construction Contract Claims 28 No-Show and Late Cancellation 60 Fraudulent Third Party Claims 36 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 84 Institutional 49 Policy Procedures Risk Management 13 Rail Tunnel and Underground Structures Light Rail Vehicles (LRV) Inspection 23 Compression Requirements 25 Safe Operation for Alternative Fuel Buses 1 Operations 79 Productivity System-Specific Spare Ratios 15 Employee 3, 16, 22, 33, 54 Light Rail Transit 61, 79, 83 Transit System 54, 56, 60 Low-Floor Buses 2 Public Involvement in Transit Planning 85, 89 Maintenance Quality Assurance Bus Maintenance Facilities 7, 9 Bus Maintenance 81 Light Rail Transit 61, 43 (web-only) Queue Jump/Bypass Lanes 83 Line and Cleaning Functions 12 Monitoring Performance 22, 44 Rail Preventive 81, 92 Bicycle, Integration with 4, 62 Productivity 53, 54 Integration with Large Items 88 Management 44, 47, 59, 71 Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements 25 Management Information Systems (see Information Passenger Transfers 19 Technology) Security 21, 90 Marketing Station Area Development 20 Bicycles on Transit 62 Streetcars 86 Circulators 87 Suburb-to-Suburb Service 14 Mobile Data Terminals 70 System-Specific Spare Ratios 15 Monitoring Maintenance Performance 22, 54 Tunnel and Underground Structures 23 Non-Emergency Medical Transportation 65 Real-Time Transit Information 91 Recruitment Paratransit Services 30, 31, 60, 65, 71, 74, 76 Bus Drivers 16, 33, 40 Parking and Storage Management 47 Bicycles 62 Security Personnel 21 Partnerships, 65 Supervisors 16 Passengers Regulations Comfort 12 Air Quality 1, 7, 8, 84 Communicating with 37, 68, 89 Alternative Fuel Buses 1, 72 Information Display 91 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 2, 7, 16, 17, Ridership Counts 29, 34 24, 30, 31, 37, 50, 53, 60, 65, 74, 76 Safety 18, 21, 50, 58, 80, 88 Buses on Shoulders 64 Satisfaction 45, 64, 69 Drugs and Alcohol 16 Transfer Systems 19 EPA 7 Performance-Based Measures Family Leave Medical Act 33 Funding Allocation 56 Leave Policies 33 Diversity Training 46 Local and State 7 Role in Funding Allocation 6 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Performance Evaluation 7, 52 Bus Operators 40 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 9 Circulators 87 Retrofitting 7, 8 8

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Table 4 (Continued ) Suburb-to-Suburb Service 14 Service Waste Management 9 Planning 66, 89, 94 Retrofitting Quality 15, 45, 53, 57 Bus 8, 49 Small Buses 41 Bus Maintenance Facilities 7 Service Line and Cleaning 12 Engine 7, 8 Spare Ratios Regulatory, Impacts on 7 System-Specific Buses 11 Revenues System-Specific Rail Vehicles 15 Advertising 51 Standards Ridership 63 Alternative Fuels 1 Forecasting 66 Bus Route Evaluation 10, 14 Risk Management 90 Maintenance 54 Medium Agencies 13 State of Good Repair 92 Small Agencies 13 Streetcars 86 Suburb-to-Suburb Commuting 14 Supervisors Safety Bus Field 16 Alternative Fuel Bus Operation 1 Relations with Drivers 33 Bus Drivers 93 Surveillance 90 Bus Occupant 18, 38, 50, 64 Surveys Bus Route Evaluation 10 On-Line and Intercept 63 Communications 68 Web-Based 69 Light Rail Vehicle Compression Resistance 25 Infrastructure 92 Terrorism 27, 80 Track Workers 95 Tort Claims 36 Traffic Operations 49 Track Maintenance 43 (web-only), 95 Video Surveillance 90 Training Scheduling Bus Drivers 18, 30, 40 Adherence 49 Diversity Training 46 Automatic Vehicle Location Systems 24, 48, 53, Information Technology 35, 44 55, 73, 91 Management, Paratransit 71 Bus Driver Availability 33 Riders, Paratransit 74 Bus Route Evaluation 10 Supervisors 16 Bus Stop Information 17, 48 Technicians 81 Bus Transfers 19 Transfers 19 Computer-Aided 57 Transit-Focused Development 20 Demand-Responsive 53, 57 Transit, Public Involvement 89 Downtown Circulators 87 Transit, Security 90, 93 Flexible Route 53 Transit Signal Priority 83 Maintenance, Bus 81 Transitways 83 Paratransit 74, 76 Transportation Demand Management 39 Point Deviation 53 Tunnels 23 Ridership Data Collection 29, 34, 63 Small Buses 41 Underground Structures 23 Suburb-to-Suburb 14 Unions 54 Security U-Pass 78 Automatic Vehicle Location 73 Bus Drivers, for 33, 93 Vandalism 93 Crime Prevention 21, 38, 80 Video Surveillance 90 Passenger Security Inspections 80 Violence (see Security) Technology Systems 35, 38 Terrorism 27, 80 Waste Control Violence Reduction 21, 93 Bus Maintenance Facilities 9 9

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Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 ISBN 978-0-309-22348-5 90000 Subscriber Categories: Public Transportation Operations and Traffic Management Design Planning and Forecasting Vehicles and Equipment Maintenance and Preservation Energy Environment Society Finance 9 780309 223485 These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP.