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22 CHAPTER THREE REVIEW OF DRIVER SELECTION TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS This chapter addresses the principal topic of this report: Overall Driver Selection and Hiring Process tests and measurements for selecting safe commercial driv- ers. The previous chapter reviewed basic requirements for The previous section specified the minimum actions and commercial drivers and safety-important ways in which paperwork for hiring commercial drivers. In practice, these commercial drivers vary. These are enduring human char- minimum actions are combined with voluntary company acteristics relevant to general personal safety, social adjust- actions to form an overall system and sequence of steps ment, and wellness. This chapter builds on that foundation for hiring. Figure 6 shows a flowchart of a systematic com- and asks how knowledge of individual differences can be mercial driver hiring process. It outlines a multiple hurdles applied in a company hiring setting to select the safest driv- approach in which a candidate must pass all assessments in ers. The chapter begins with a brief review of "generic" sequence to be employed. The flowchart is adapted from one carrier hiring processes as well as general employment test provided by Daecher Consulting Group for CTBSSP Syn- characteristics and requirements. Then it describes a series thesis 4 (Knipling et al. 2004). The current project focuses of specific instruments used for driver selection, many of on test and measurement procedures that can be used to which are commercially available products or services. Most improve the selection process, especially those that can be of these instruments are oriented toward safe driving as the administered to drivers as part of on-site screening. Cascio criterion job performance measure. Some attempt to predict (2004) and Knipling (2009a) present four general rules for driver retention, which is known to be correlated with safety. selecting the highest-quality possible drivers: 1. Target high-quality applicants OVERVIEW OF COMMERCIAL DRIVER SELECTION AND HIRING 2. Attract as many applicants as possible Minimum Required Actions 3. Use multiple, validated selection tools and methods Carriers must, at a minimum, take actions to ensure that any 4. Be as selective as possible. driver they hire (and keep under hire) meets general com- mercial driver qualifications. This means that carriers must A high-quality applicant pool means that those selected maintain a qualification file for each employee. According to will be the "best of the best." Attracting more applicants 49 CFR 391.51 and as summarized in FMCSA (2008), this means that a smaller percentage of applicants will be hired, qualification file must include the following: and thus that the process has been as selective as possible. The use of multiple validated selection tools and methods results Driver's application for employment (completed and in the most accurate possible selections. Good driver selection signed). systems usually include multiple evaluation factors beyond Driver's motor vehicle report (MVR) of past crashes minimum driver requirements, such as applicant education, and violations from the applicable state agency for the driving history, nondriving history (i.e., criminal record), preceding 3 years. prior drug and alcohol tests, medical conditions, personality, Driver's road test certificate or the equivalent. A cur- and job attitudes. The ATA publication SafeReturns (ATA rent CDL is evidence of road test completion. Foundation 1999a) recommended requiring age and experi- Annual review of driving record based on state agency ence minimums, conducting in-person interviews, screening inquiry and carrier review. Certification that driver for stable employment history, setting a top limit for mov- meets minimum requirements is signed by the carrier. ing violations using a point system, conducting driving tests, Annual driver's certification of violations. requiring a company physical examination, and reviewing the Medical examiner's certificate. financial reliability (e.g., credit rating) of owner-operators. Record of inquiry(ies) to previous employer(s) for past Many of these methods are discussed later in this chapter and 3 years. in the chapter five carrier case studies.