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4 identify crash risk factors and reduce risk. For example, the are to achieve high safety performance and stable work- U.S.DOT Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) was forces. Selection methods must assess the various endur- performed to "identify associations between various factors ing driver characteristics known to be related to risk, which and an increased risk of crash involvement in either relative include driver demographics, driving knowledge and skills, or absolute terms" (Blower and Campbell 2005). The fol- personality, risk perception and attitudes, psychomotor lowing box presents a taxonomy of potential crash risk fac- skills, medical status and conditions, behavioral history, and tors based on multiple sources (Evans 2004; Starnes 2006; mental abilities. The text box, adapted from a DOL report Shinar 2007; Thiffault 2007; Knipling 2009a; Murray et al. (DOL 2000) lists assessment procedures that may be consid- 2009). The principal focus of this project is on the category ered under the rubric "tests and measurements" for purpose of persistent driver characteristics, though other categories of improved employee hiring. were also addressed in the project survey and in interviews. Enduring human characteristics are also known as traits, in The best carrier driver recruitment and selection sys- contrast to temporary characteristics, also known as states. tems are those that attract a large number of highly qualified applicants and have the highest and most accurate standards The second broader context for commercial driver selec- for selection. High selection "accuracy" requires the use of tion is that of employee selection in general. Employee per- valid selection tests and other procedures to assess endur- formance differences permeate the workplace and create ing driver characteristics relevant to safety (Cascio 2004). the need for valid employee assessments and, in particular, This study reviews motor carrier driver selection methods selection procedures. The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL in general, with a focus on the scientific basis and validity of 2000) points out various work situations where employee various driver selection tools. selection is particularly important for organizational suc- cess. Among these situations are (1) when employee errors can have catastrophic consequences and (2) when there is PROJECT OBJECTIVES, METHODS, AND SCOPE high employee turnover. Both of these conditions character- ize commercial motor vehicle (CMV) transport. Carriers This report reviews the academic, commercial, and industry must therefore emphasize driver selection and hiring if they literature on tests, measurements, and other procedures used Potential Crash Risk Factors Enduring Driver Factors Roadway and Environmental Factors Demographics (e.g., age, gender) Mileage exposure in general Driving knowledge and skills Divided vs. undivided roads Personality (e.g., aggressiveness, sensation-seeking, Level of access/types of intersections stress level) Traffic density Risk perception and attitudes Curves and ramps Psychomotor skills (e.g., reaction time) Intersections Medical status and conditions, including fatigue Lane restrictions susceptibility Construction zones Behavioral history Weather and road surface condition Mental abilities Carrier Operations and Management Factors Temporary Driver Factors Organization and operation type Recent sleep Driver selection Time-of-day and circadian rhythms Fleet-based driver training Time awake (e.g., > 16 hours) Communications and dispatching Time-on-task (hours working and driving) Driver performance monitoring and evaluation Short-term illnesses Rewards and discipline Moods and recent stress Pay and benefits Recent food and fluids Drugs, medications, and alcohol Government Policies and Practices Familiarity with road Driver qualifications and licensing Hours of service (HOS) Vehicle Factors Enforcement practices Vehicle design and configuration Information and education programs. Mechanical condition Safety features and technologies

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5 The survey and interview methodologies are each described Candidate Assessment Procedures in chapters focusing on those efforts. The research literature Observations and vendor product review methodology is described here. Resume evaluations Searches were performed using websites, academic data- Application forms bases, books, trade press publications, and articles. The fol- Questionnaires lowing databases were used to conduct the reviews: Observations Resume evaluations Transportation Research Information Services: The Application forms largest online bibliographic database of transporta- Questionnaires tion research, containing more than 650,000 records of Public records review published research. Biodata Business Source Premier: Features the full text for Interviews more than 2,200 journals. Full text is provided back Work samples to 1965, and searchable cited references back to 1998. Performance tests PsycINFO: From the American Psychological Asso Mental ability tests ciation, contains nearly 2.3 million citations and sum- Physical ability tests maries of scholarly journal articles, book chapters, books, Personality inventories and dissertations, all in psychology and related disciplines Honesty/integrity inventories PsycARTICLES: From the American Psychological Work interest inventories Association, contains more than 45,000 articles from Medical histories 57 journals, 46 published by the association and 11 by Medical examinations allied organizations. Drug/alcohol tests EconLit: From the American Economic Association's Probationary periods electronic database, covers economic literature, with more than 735,000 records. Source: Adapted from DOL (2000). by motor carriers to select safe commercial drivers. It pres- These databases were searched using a variety of topic- ents evidence relating to individual driver trait differences related key words and phrases, often in combinations to relevant to safety, and describes ways that those differences improve focus. Key words included trucking, safety, screen- can be assessed as part of hiring decision making. Surveys ing, driver, commercial trucking, driving measurements, and interviews were used to obtain information from motor driving behaviors, personality factors, retention, driver carrier safety managers and other experts on selection proce- characteristics, hiring, traits, job performance, and tests. dures and tests and on underlying driver characteristics rele- vant to risk. The report also describes important and prevalent The material in this report requires three disclaimers: carrier selection practices, discusses barriers to more wide- spread use of various selection tools, and identifies research Although there may be regulatory issues and activities and development needs relating to driver selection by carriers. relating to some study topics, the study did not address them in that context and does not make recommenda- This Driver Selection Tests and Measurements synthesis tions relating to government regulations. project has been based on the following information-gather- No product or service was formally evaluated for this ing activities: report. Company and brand names are provided to illus- trate available products and services. Neither TRB nor Research literature review this report endorses any company, product, or service. Safety-relevant individual differences The project survey data presented in chapter four and Retention- and performance-quality-relevant indi- cited elsewhere are based on convenience samples vidual differences of responding safety managers and other experts. Tests and measurements Survey data represent the opinions and practices of Vendor product review the respondents, not larger populations such as "all Surveys carrier safety managers." Safety manager respon- Carrier safety manager questionnaire dents were generally from larger fleets with sufficient Other expert (e.g., research, government, trade resources and safety interest to participate in national association) questionnaire industry organizations and meetings, through which Carrier safety manager interviews (for case studies) they were contacted. Review of federal regulations FMCSA The remaining chapters of this report review basic com- EEOC hiring guidelines (EEOC 2003). mercial driver qualifications, examine safety-relevant individ-

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6 ual differences, summarize typical carrier hiring procedures, research needs. Report appendices provide the project survey describe various tests and measurements to assess driver forms and supplemental information on commercial driver safety, present the project surveys and report their results, hiring and selection. present several carrier case studies, and state conclusions and