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49 than four crashes or violations. The same requirements apply A sleep lab OSA diagnosis means that the driver must sign to new CDL candidates, except for the past crash/violation a treatment compliance agreement and pay for most of it. requirement, which is more strenuous. These applicants can They are still allowed to drive, however, if they comply with have no more than three crashes or violations in the previous the agreement. 3 years. Meeting minimum qualifications results in initial approval for hire, but candidates must then receive a "safety approval" following an in-house orientation, and an "opera- CASE STUDY B: LARGE TRUCKLOAD CARRIER tional approval" after they are on the job. Approximately 10% of drivers with initial approvals wash out for safety reasons in the final two approval steps. The most common Five Carrier B reasons for these late rejections are medical. Innovative Hiring Practices In the study survey and in the follow-up interview, the Hires drivers in four different status/background director of safety stated the belief that driver factors (both categories enduring traits and temporary states) had greater effects on crash risk than did vehicle or roadway factors. Truck Standardized form for scoring road and range tests mechanical conditions causing crashes were considered rare. Roadway and environmental conditions may present Criminal and credit background checks challenges and force drivers to adjust, but the driver factor is still predominant in safety outcomes. This philosophy is Drivers must pass 3.5-day orientation before full hire reflected in the company's rigorous and multi-element driver selection, training, and orientation procedures. Company drivers evaluated by comprehensive safety management system Carrier A's selection process includes other cutting-edge procedures. In lieu of road and range tests for drivers, the company uses a driving simulator. Driving simulators are Carrier B is a large refrigerated trucking company, haul- used primarily for training, but many of the advantages of ing temperature-sensitive freight such as fresh produce, simulation apply to applicant assessment as well. Simulators meat, dairy products, beverages, and chemicals. The com- have the following advantages: pany has national operations of several different types. The SM respondent and interviewee worked in the company's TL Safety. No risk to the public and even dangerous operation. Carrier B hires qualified individuals with no pre- maneuvers can be tested. vious driving experience and trains them in its own schools. Efficiency. More skill tests and scenarios can be pre- It also hires experienced drivers, independent contractors, sented in a given time. and graduates from other truck driving schools. The com- Standardization. Conditions and events can be pany's website provides different information and guidance controlled. for these four types of applicants (inexperienced, student, Sophisticated measurement. Simulators offer more experienced, independent contractors). precise, quantitative analysis of performance. Carrier B's SM viewed driver enduring and temporary The simulated driving test for applicants provides a characteristics (traits and states) as having the biggest printout of performance, but the test is not fully automated. impacts on crash risk. "You can bring a `B' driver up to `A' Rather, an experienced safety professional watches the standards, but not a `C' or `D' driver." In reference to tempo- driver perform and takes notes on driver performance and rary states, the SM believed that problems on a driver's mind behavior. These notes include hard-to-measure behaviors often lead to inattentive driving and to crashes. Inattentive- like driver visual scanning and tendencies toward "competi- ness as well as tendencies toward aggressive or risk-taking tive" driving. driving are apparent in road and range tests, and thus Carrier B conducts these tests systematically and carefully. Instruc- A second cutting-edge practice is the use of an in-house tor evaluators use a standard form to assess behaviors like sleep lab to test both current drivers and applicants for OSA. space management, speeds, turning habits, and mirror use. Because of the time and expense of a sleep lab test, it is not used as part of initial screening but later in the process Carrier B conducts both criminal background and credit after the candidate has met other requirements. A medical checks on their driver applications. Although the results of questionnaire and physician exam prescreens candidates these checks have safety implications, they are more related to determine which ones will require a sleep lab test. The to meeting DOT requirements and to load security. The com- prescreening is based on well-known OSA risk factors like pany also administers an English language test, although body-mass index (BMI), neck circumference, and snoring. the SM believed that English language skills generally had