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50 little relation to safety. Other driver characteristics the inter- risk. Driver selection and evaluation are regarded as among viewee regarded as having low correlation to safety were the most important carrier safety management practices. introversion, low intelligence, and obesity. "Drivers can have various problems and limitations and still be good drivers." Carrier C hires both newly trained and experienced driv- ers. It also has cooperative agreements with driving schools to Applicant work history is a more important consider- hire and train novice drivers. The company offers competitive ation in hiring. Too many or too few jobs are causes for medical, dental, retirement, leave, and financial benefits to its concern. Prior military experience is desirable, because it drivers. As a large company, Carrier C is able to offer advance- usually means the applicant is willing to follow directions ment possibilities as well, such as becoming a driver trainer or and comply with company rules. The SM would like to have seeking other company positions. The company's reputation, a thorough psychological evaluation of each applicant, but business success, and attractive pay and benefits for drivers regarded this as cost- and time-prohibitive. Experienced have enabled it to be extremely selective in its hiring. drivers with initial acceptances must attend a 3.5-day ori- entation session that covers company policies, procedures, Experienced drivers joining the company's van divisions and expectations. Applicants are not hired until they suc- are required to complete a 4-day orientation program. The cessfully complete this orientation. orientation for tanker truck drivers is much longer: 14 days. The orientation includes a prework screening, classroom Carrier B employs a comprehensive safety management training (including units on mobile communications and trip system in its operations. This analytic system, provided planning), testing for maneuvering skills on a driving simu- under contract by a safety consulting firm, tracks about lator, a road test, and a DOT drug screen. Prework screening "3,000 data points" relating both to drivers and operational includes an intensive physical abilities assessment keyed to risk factors. The system is not used primarily to select driv- job requirements. In addition to basic physical (e.g., height, ers, but information gathered from drivers during selection weight) and physiological measurements (e.g., blood pres- and hiring is used in the system to help identify the 20% or sure), the test includes graded active tasks such as repetitive so of drivers with potential safety issues. stepping, squatting, front carrying (30 and 60 lb), floor-to- head lifting, crouching, kneeling, horizontal pushing and pulling, and floor-to-waist lifting. A video on the company CASE STUDY C: LARGE TRUCKLOAD CARRIER website demonstrates these tests and briefly explains their job task relevance to potential applicants. Five Carrier C The Carrier C SM believed that past driver behaviors are Innovative Hiring Practices among the best predictors of future behaviors. Risky behav- ior patterns are persistent over time, whether the result of Attractive pay and working conditions support high habit or personal disposition. This is largely true irrespec- employee standards and low selection ratio tive of company interventions like training and expectation- setting. The company checks applicants' criminal records, Multielement physical abilities test keyed to job and the SM regarded this as highly effective as a screening tasks procedure. Risky or antisocial behaviors of any kind can be indicative of driving risk. Standardized road and range tests The SM also believed there was a strong relation between Company medical exams and health/wellness crash risk and driver health and, in particular, between crash program risk and obesity. Truck driving requires both long hours and constant attention to driving. Drivers with these conditions Job satisfaction/job choice questionnaire are therefore at risk. This concern is addressed by an aggres- sive company driver health and wellness program. Carrier C has been recognized nationally for its driver health and Carrier C is a large diversified carrier with primarily TL wellness program, especially in the area of OSA. The com- operations but also intermodal and logistics services. The pany provides OSA diagnostic screening, treatment (includ- company's TL business is itself diverse, including long-haul, ing free OSA treatment machines provided to drivers), and regional, expedited, dedicated, and bulk operations. The SM ongoing monitoring. This program has resulted in signifi- interviewee is a corporate senior vice president who oversees cant driver health care cost savings and reduced involvement safety, security, and driver training. The company assesses in fatigue-related crashes. both candidate and employed drivers in multiple and sophisti- cated ways, reflective of the SM's belief that enduring and tem- Carrier C has conducted extensive driver-related research porary driver factors are the principal determinants of crash programs, both internally and in conjunction with federally