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51 funded studies. They have included research on driver factors to evaluate both driver applicants and employed drivers. The predictive of both crash involvement and retention. Based API, a proprietary formula provided by Carrier D's insur- on this research, the SM is considering adding a cognitive ance carrier, is based on driver age, number of moving vio- skills test to the company's selection procedures. Company lations, number of crashes, number of previous employers, research suggests that an optimal test would include basic and other factors. Applicants must meet an API threshold quantitative literacy ("numeracy") and planning skills. to be hired. Carrier D has done its own internal company research to validate the API, in addition to that done by the insurance company. CASE STUDY D: LARGE TRUCKLOAD CARRIER All drivers hired by Carrier D must be 22 years old, have no drug or alcohol-related driving offenses in the past 5 Five Carrier D years, and have no more than one such offense in a lifetime. Innovative Hiring Practices Other criteria relating to past moving violations and prevent- able crashes apply. Driver applicants at each evaluation loca- Accident Potential Index as quantitative applicant tion must complete a standardized road and range driving assessment test, which is evaluated based on a checklist and score sheet. There is also a standardized interview and questionnaire Collaborative agreement with driver training process, which includes questions on driving experience, provider behavior, and medical conditions. Standardized road/range testing and scoring In addition to conducting controlled substance and alco- hol urine testing, Carrier D conducts hair testing on a random Hair testing for drug use over past 90 days sample of applicants. Hair testing supports a 90-day detection window for five categories of illicit drugs: opiates, cocaine, Internal validation studies of driver selection methamphetamines, amphetamines, and marijuana. Any procedures positive test finding is a disqualifier. Applicants are informed of the random hair testing at the beginning of the process, which causes most drug users to drop out at that time. Carrier D is a large common and contract carrier specializ- ing in TL quantities of general commodities. The company The SM predicted that CSA 2010 would increase driver is located in the central United States and runs primar- turnover because it would force some drivers with bad records ily medium-distance dry van and flatbed hauls. Carrier D out of the industry. Also, drivers might become strongly hires experienced driver employees, teams, owner-oper- motivated to switch to carriers with better maintenance and ators, newly trained CDL holders, and untrained drivers. other safety management programs so they are not "dinged Untrained drivers are recruited, trained, and qualified in for company sins." This will put more focus on the need for collaboration with a chain of driver training schools. Car- improved driver selection methods and also on closely moni- rier D's SM interviewee is involved primarily in tracking toring the driving of new hires. A more holistic approach to fleet and driver compliance and safety metrics. The SM has driver selection would go beyond minimum requirements to also been involved in other aspects of fleet safety, including look more at driver personality and in-vehicle performance. driver selection. Driver traits noted as having higher asso- Safe driving performance might be assessed using driving ciations with crash risk included aggressive and risk-taking simulators or other dynamic tests. personalities, low intelligence/mental skills, driver personal and financial problems, and poor vehicle handling. These traits were related to drivers tending to "push rules" and CASE STUDY E: MEDIUM-SIZED REGIONAL being less conscientious and precise in their driving. Driver TRUCKLOAD CARRIER personal problems create mental states and moods not con- ducive to careful driving. Driver traits unfavorable to safety Carrier E is a medium-sized TL carrier in eastern Canada. tend also to be unfavorable to retention. The company owns several hundred tractors and more than 1,000 trailers. Its driver pool consists of about 80% com- Because it is a large carrier hiring drivers with various pany employees and 20% owner-operators operating under backgrounds, much of the focus of Carrier D's selection contract. The company offers logistics and warehousing and hiring system is on ensuring that drivers meet all DOT services in addition to TL haulage. TL capabilities include requirements, including medical qualifications. Carrier D refrigeration and Hazmat. Most runs are regional trips of adds various practices to go beyond meeting those require- less than 500 miles (one way) between Ontario and north- ments. It uses a quantitative Accident Potential Index (API) eastern U.S. states or the upper Midwest.

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52 tics operations. The company also received the Shipper's Five Carrier E Choice Award from Canadian Transportation and Logistics Innovative Hiring Practices Magazine based on a poll of shippers. Evaluation areas for the award include "On Time Performance," "Equipment and Attractive benefits and pay practices Operations," "Information Technology," "Competitive Pric- ing," "Customer Service," "Problem Solving," and "Value- Website "self-test" for potential applicants Added Services." Multidimensional scoring of applicants based on Carrier E participates in a consortium of 18 Cana- driving history dian motor carriers striving to improve their safety and reduce losses. The group meets quarterly to share best Detailed driver job description and expectations safety practices and materials, including those related to published on website selection of safe drivers. Five years of participation in this group has resulted in steady declines in the company's Three-hour road/range test with quantitative loss ratios. scoring On its driver recruiting web page, Carrier E touts driver benefits exceeding those typically seen for U.S. companies. They include accidental death and dismemberment insur- Company Website "Self Test" for Potential Applicants ance, long-term disability insurance, health insurance, pre- scription drug coverage, vision and dental care, a retirement Are you over the age of 21? savings plan similar to a U.S. 401(k), and a profit-sharing plan. Driver pay is based primarily on mileage (full or Do you have a valid Canadian commercial driver's empty), but also includes supplemental payments such as license? layover, breakdown, pick up/delivery, New York City pre- mium, "hand bombing" (loading/unloading), trailer switch Do you have clean legal and driving records? pay, and "driver float" pay (expense advances). Drivers are provided fuel cards. Are you legally eligible to work in Canada? The company prefers to hire drivers with a minimum of 1 Can you cross the border into the United States? to 2 years of experience, but also hires newly licensed appli- cants from reputable driving schools. The company's website Are you willing to be tested for drug and alcohol contains a 12-item, yes-no self-test to help applicants decide use on a random basis? whether they are really ready to seek employment. These questions are shown in the text box. All answers should be Are you able to travel for 5 to 6 days at a time most "yes" for Carrier E applicants. The effectiveness of the self- weeks of the year? test as a filter is not known, but the SM noted that the driver recruiting web page gets many hits that do not result in appli- Does your family support your decision to be on cations submitted. This implies that the website itself func- the road? tions as a prescreen. The site also provides, under Driver Expectations, a four-page driver job description delineating Will your family be able to cope with your frequent tasks and stating standards of acceptable performance. This absences? Professional Transport Operator Job Description, provided in Appendix B, states more than 80 specific responsibilities, Are you okay with unpredictable schedules and physical demands, and job working conditions. working conditions? Qualified applicants are invited to come in for in-person Are you interested in primarily short haul (less than screening. Carrier E uses a multidimensional driving and 500 miles one way)? behavioral history scoring system to rate each applicant. This "Driver Points Evaluation Form" is provided in the fol- Can you commit to working a minimum of 1 year? lowing text box. Applicants also take a written job knowl- edge test that includes a math/mental abilities test and an English language test. The company's recruiting manager Carrier E recently received International Standards Orga- conducts a structured interview consisting of more than 60 nization (ISO) certification under ISO Standard 9001:2008 scripted questions (provided in Appendix B). The structured encompassing its transportation, warehousing, and logis- interview covers applicant knowledge of the company, train-

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53 ing and qualifications, experience, driving record, driver's this percentage is lowered by more rigorous prescreening. license and other documentation, lifestyle, job expecta- Although Carrier E devotes a lot of time and resources to tions, prospective earnings, work history, driving behaviors driver selection, the effort is considered worthwhile because and attitudes, other work behaviors and attitudes, sources "Hiring the wrong people causes so much grief." of motivation and job satisfaction, and specific steps and requirements for becoming a full-fledged company driver. In reflections about the elements of commercial driver suc- cess or failure, Carrier E's SM believed that key risk factors One of two in-house trainers then takes each candidate on a include aggressiveness, risk-taking tendencies, and personal standardized, 3-hour driving road and range test. Road/range family and financial problems. The SM conducts most inves- test scoring is based on a checklist with rating scales. As many tigations of company crashes, and often concludes that driver as 50% of applicants can fail the road/range test, although personal problems contributed to crash causation by taking Carrier E Driver Points Evaluation Form Name:Date: Driving School Name: Graduation Date: Instructions: This is the primary step but not the only step (driving tests, medical, prior employment references etc.) in the initial evaluation of a prospective driver employee. This points evaluation must be used on all driver applicants. If the prospective driver has a driver evaluation score in excess of 4, serious consider- ation should be given to qualifications prior to hiring. 1. Length of time at residence 0 to 1 year 2 1 year to 5 years 1 Over 5 years 0 2. Length of previous related employment 0 to 1 year 2 1 to 5 years 1 Over 5 years 0 3. Number of preventable accidents (within last 3 years) None 0 1 or 2 1 per occurrence 3 or over 2 per occurrence 4. Major moving violations (within last 3 years) Driving while intoxicated Reject Driving while under the influence of drugs Reject Driving while under suspension Reject Careless Reject Racing or Excessive Speed Reject 5. Other moving violations (within past 3 years) 1 or more 1 per occurrence None 0 Total: _____________ Grading: Best Average Questionable Reject 0-2 3-4 5 6 (or over) Approved/Disqualified by: ________________________________________________________