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54 drivers' minds off their driving. Driver personal adjustment · Minimum 23 years of age is more important than education or mental ability. The latter · One year tractor-trailer experience with truck driver are not so important as long as the driver's "attitude is right." school training, or 2 years experience without schooling · No alcohol- or drug-related driving violations or felony All new hires receive a 3.5-day classroom orientation and convictions in the past 10 years an in-cab training period with an experienced driver trainer. · No DOT preventable accidents in the past 3 years Sixteen senior company drivers are formally designated as · Meet DOT requirements and be able to pass DOT phys- driver trainers. They compete for this designation, receive ical and drug screen tests, both paid by the company. train-the-trainer instruction, and receive extra pay for train- ing duties. Inexperienced drivers receive 6 weeks of on-road Appendix B includes the driver application form, which mentoring before they become full-fledged company driv- the company provided for this report. The application form ers. Canada permits a 90-day probationary period for all states 12 minimum qualifications and requirements, and lists new employees, during which employees may be terminated 11 physical tasks which must be performed on the job. It also without cause. Few new drivers wash out during this period; includes behavioral biodata questions, most relating to driv- when they do, it is usually owing to an inability to adjust to ing history. It includes questions on work history (covering the on-the-road trucking lifestyle. the past 10 years of employment) and an affidavit that the information provided is true. CASE STUDY F: MEDIUM-SIZED TRUCKLOAD CARRIER The SM chose driver selection and driver evaluation as WITH HAZMAT OPERATIONS the two most important carrier practices related to safety outcomes. The SM believed that driver safety differences were more likely to be the result of short-term states than Five Carrier F to long-term traits. Personal stress was mentioned as a fac- Innovative Hiring Practices tor that may affect driver performance directly or indirectly. Personal financial or family problems may prevent drivers · Minimum driver qualifications exceed DOT from focusing fully on their jobs and on driving. During requirements crash investigations, the SM tries to determine whether per- sonal concerns played a role in the crash. · Credit checks on owner-operators Because owner-operators have greater financial and other · Road and range testing responsibilities relating to their trucks, they are subjected to credit checks before hire. This reduces the number of lease/ · Several methods to check for safety belt use contract drivers with financial problems affecting their per- formance. Nevertheless, the SM believed that driver employ- · Medical questionnaire focusing on OSA and medi- ees and lease/contract drivers (owner-operators) perform cations used about equally overall. Like others interviewed, the Carrier F SM believed that Carrier F is a TL carrier primarily serving the Midwest road and range tests were essential steps in hiring and highly and eastern United States. Based in Liberty, Missouri, the indicative of potential driver problems. The SM pointed out company has several hundred trucks and hauls both Hazmat that these tests generate stress for driver applicants, but that and non-Hazmat cargo. Its website states that its perfor- dealing with stress was necessary for commercial drivers. mance and safety follow ISO processes. The ISO approach Safety belt use was of course part of the road test observa- includes regular statistical process analysis, including tion, but the company also assessed belt use by (a) asking internal and external audits. According to its website, the the driver directly during the interview, and (b) reviewing company's safety culture is "by the book" but also strives past roadside inspection reports to see if it showed up as a to exceed regulatory requirements. The company's director violation. of safety, interviewed for this project and case study, was recently recognized as Safety Director of the Year by the Carrier F uses a medical history questionnaire focused Missouri Motor Carriers Association. mainly on OSA. Applicants must also provide information on all prescription medicines used. If given more resources Carrier F hires both carrier drivers and lease/contract and time with applicants, the SM would add a psychological drivers. Minimum requirements on its website include the profile test to current methods, although this was considered following: impractical at present.