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55 CASE STUDY G: LARGE RETAIL CHAIN PRIVATE which puts a premium on driver honesty and dependabil- FLEET ity. Carrier G's HR department performs seven different background checks on candidates, including local and state criminal checks and a Social Security check. There is no Five Carrier G check of applicants' credit ratings, as the SM believed it was Innovative Hiring Practices not directly related to performance as a driver. Often drivers have made unwise financial decisions and thus have credit Stable, well-paying driver jobs permit low selection problems, but nevertheless are reliable employees, perhaps ratio in part because they need the income. Seven different background checks Driver candidates are initially given standardized road and range driving tests. Carrier G uses a standard, propri- Standardized road and range tests using commer- etary evaluation form produced by J. J. Keller. Candidates cial rating form must pass these driving tests before proceeding to other assessments. Standardized interview scored numerically Carrier G's drivers also unload their trucks and have Interview and other assessments designed to iden- some amount of customer contact. Therefore, they must be tify aggressive, temperamental, and noncompliant presentable and personable in addition to being safe. Carrier drivers G has developed a structured driver interview form in which individual items are scored from 0 to 3 based on the driver response. The interview form includes personality-related Carrier G is the private fleet serving a large national retail questions designed to reveal traits like aggressiveness, a chain store. The company is served both by its own private short temper, or resentment. For example, interviewees are fleet and for-hire carriers. The SM interviewed is the national asked to rate themselves on questions like, "I sometimes lose manager of safety and compliance for the private fleet, which my temper," or "The dispatcher always screws me." Two in turn consists of regional divisions. Each division makes companion questions ask what candidates most like and local (100 mile) deliveries within dislike about themselves. An answer to the latter such as, its area. The SM's job responsibilities encompass qualifica- "I sometimes lose my temper" suggests safety concerns. A tions and safety, operations, and risk analysis and control. low score is given for any answer that suggests a job-related Carrier G is a recent recipient of the ATA President's Award safety or other performance concern. Because the company for Best Overall Safety Program for fleets in its size cate- can be selective in its hiring, the interview is intended to gory. It has also been recognized for its low crash rate and "look for a profile" indicative of driving risk. low driver injury rate. The driver interview and orientation includes clear delin- Like most survey respondents and interviewees, the eation of company rules drivers must follow, which include Carrier G SM considered driver traits like aggressiveness, safety belt use and electronic logs. Interviewers gauge inter- risk-taking, dishonesty, and poor vehicle handling to be viewee reactions to hearing the rules to discern any possible major risk factors. In contrast, traits like introversion and driver resistance. low intelligence are not necessarily related to safety. Even drivers with limited mental abilities can be good if they take pride in their driving and their jobs. Personal problems CASE STUDY H: MEDIUM-SIZED PRIVATE AND FOR- can markedly degrade a driver's safety. The SM told of two HIRE FOOD AND GENERAL CARGO CARRIER previously crash-free drivers who had two different crashes during the same period of several months while they were Carrier H is a medium-sized, short- and medium-distance involved in acrimonious divorce proceedings. Any distrac- transporter and logistics service provider servicing the Mid- tions from driving are dangerous, and such personal crises Atlantic, Northeast, and Southeast United States. The com- cause chronic distraction. pany specializes in temperature-controlled food shipments but also hauls other types of cargo, including live animals. Carrier G has the advantage of being a private fleet with It functions largely as a private carrier because its primary sought-after jobs and a low driver turnover rate of about 6%. operations are under a long-term dedicated contract with a This allows the company to be selective in its hiring (i.e., food producer and shipper. It is also a licensed carrier with to have a low selection ratio). Driver hires who last more TL and scheduled LTL operations. The interviewee's title is than a few months with the company usually become long- general manager, with duties encompassing driver hiring, term employees. Carrier G drivers deliver high-value goods, training, supervision, equipment, and operations.