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56 to both its nondriving employees and its drivers. ProfileXT is Five Carrier H a commercially available assessment tool designed to test the Innovative Hiring Practices match of candidates' thinking and reasoning styles, behav- ioral traits, and occupational interests to successful com- Criminal and credit background checks pany employees. It is not focused on either transportation or safety, but like other general profiles can be used to match On-road driving test by experienced driver/trainer candidates to various types of jobs and job performance cri- using standardized checklist teria. Carrier H first used and validated ProfileXT in relation to its office and other nondriving employees. When found to On-site occupational health staff performs com- be successful with these employees, the instrument was also pany physical examination normed against company drivers. The company selected 24 current drivers and rated their performance encompassing Special focus on OSA in driver medical screening both driving safety and nondriving criteria like reliability and customer relations. ProfileXT scale scores relating to Validation of general-purpose employee profile traits like manageability and "accommodatingness" were instrument specifically to hire successful drivers found to be most related to success as a company driver. In contrast, traits like assertiveness and decisiveness were not predictive of driving success, even though such traits might The company's HR department recruits drivers and per- be prized for other jobs in areas like sales and management. forms initial screening, including MVR checks and other The scale also tapped occupational interests. Carrier H's best required hiring procedures. The company has added use of drivers scored high on "mechanical" and "people service," PSP to its hiring procedures. The HR department also obtains but tended to score low on "enterprising" and "creative." The candidate criminal and credit checks. These checks are moti- text box shows average ProfileXT behavioral and occupa- vated primarily by security, "company culture," and cus- tional interest scores for nine of Carrier H's highest-rated tomer relations concerns. The SM believed their relevance to drivers. In discussing these results, the SM pointed out that driving safety was secondary to these other important con- it 'was not necessary for candidates to have maximum scores cerns. The company has promoted a former driver to a safety for the desired traits; average to above-average profile rat- trainer position, with additional duties related to compliance ings were generally sufficient. records and assurance. The safety trainer gives each driver candidate an on-road driving test using a checklist for assess- ing strengths and weaknesses. Each candidate is personally CASE STUDY I: SMALL CHARTER BUS SERVICE interviewed without a structured format. The SM considered personal adjustment-related traits like personal unhappiness, Carrier I is a small, family-owned charter bus service in financial problems, and job dissatisfaction to be important New York State. Most of its trips are to New York City and driver risk factors that might reflect either a driver's person- other major attractions in the region. Its SM, interviewed ality and long-term lifestyle or temporary situations. for this case study, has 20 years experience in the position and 15 prior years experience as a driver. The SM regarded driver enduring traits and roadway/traffic characteristics to Carrier H ProfileXT be the biggest crash risk factors. The concern about driver Mean Scale Scores for Top Drivers enduring traits and safety drives the company's driver selec- tion practices. Behavioral traits: Manageability: 6.4 Like the vast majority of truck and bus companies sur- Accommodating: 6.9 veyed, Carrier I conducts both an on-road and range maneu- vering driving test for each applicant. The SM also conducts a standardized interview. These tests reveal information on Carrier H has a dedicated on-site occupational health candidate knowledge, skill, and attitudes. They also reveal unit, which is responsible for performing a standardized pre- personality traits regarded as safety-critical such as aggres- employment physical examination of all driver candidates, siveness, high risk-taking, and dishonesty. Dishonesty as a regardless of their medical qualifications status. OSA is the driver trait is not just a moral concern or one related to finan- driver medical condition of greatest concern to the company, cial matters. Rather, these "moral" traits relate to compli- and its standardized physical exam contains physical mea- ance with rules, including traffic laws, HOS, and other safety surements and questions for assessing driver OSA risk. regulations. The company uses a video incident-capturing system in its buses. Based on reviews of many incident clips, Carrier H has taken the initiative to validate a general- the SM regards driver traits like aggressiveness, impulsivity, purpose employee profile assessment instrument in relation and lack of compliance to be a principal source of mishaps.