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62 included driver preparation (prejob training), company com- Perhaps the simplest way to maintain a high-quality driver munications (e.g., safety meetings), and company rewards pool is to create a positive, professional, and rewarding work and discipline. environment where driver jobs with the company are val- ued. This produces the situation in which driver recruitment Safety managers rated 12 driver personal or psycho- efforts attract a large number of highly qualified applicants, logical traits with regard to their perceived association with which in turn allows a carrier to be highly selective in its crash risk. Traits receiving the highest scale ratings included hiring. A low selection ratio (i.e., hiring a small percentage aggressive personalities, risk-taking personalities, and poor of applicants) almost always ensures high-quality employ- vehicle handling. Two with low perceived associations with ees, although another essential element is selection accuracy. crash risk were introverted/unsociable and poor English lan- Selection accuracy means using a regimen of valid selection guage skills. The ratings of other expert respondents were in procedures that truly capture the persistent driver character- general similar to those of safety managers. One factor rated istics most relevant to safety. by other experts as having a high association with crash risk (but which was not included on the safety manager form) Test characteristics such as reliability and validity underlie was driver sleep hygiene habits. the legal requirements tests must meet. Treating employees fairly in selection and other assessments is not just a matter of Safety managers were also asked about their use of vari- ethics. It is the law, and guidelines promulgated by the EEOC ous selection practices beyond those legally required. The must be followed if companies want to avoid a discrimina- average respondent used 6 of the 13 practices listed. Hir- tion lawsuit from the government or affected parties. Rigor- ing practices receiving the most favorable ratings included ous record keeping is essential, especially for companies with the road and range driving tests, computer-based dynamic more than 100 employees. To help companies correctly design tests (though used by only a few respondents), personality and use selection tools, the U.S. DOL (2000) has promoted questionnaires, and questionnaires about driving behaviors. 13 principles and best practices, described in chapter three. Checking credit history and rating received the lowest aver- The value of these principles and practices extends beyond age rating. employee selection; they also related to post-hire assessments (e.g., for promotions) and employee training and development. Ten follow-up structured interviews were conducted with volunteer respondents. Each was summarized in a car- Selection and hiring of commercial drivers starts with rier case study write-up focusing on successful, innovative ensuring that they meet all legal requirements of the FMC- driver selection practices. Chapter five provided these nar- SRs. The process includes required hiring procedures and ratives. Five innovative practices were highlighted for each record keeping as well as certification that hired drivers meet carrier, with other successful practices also described. Many licensing and medical qualifications. The project review of of these are incorporated into the following section. individual differences (chapter two), selection tests (chap- ter three), surveys (chapter four), and case studies (chapter five), as well as past reviews, suggests the following as com- REPORTED EFFECTIVE CARRIER PRACTICES mon and beneficial carrier practices: This report focused on carrier practices in the areas of Using multiple assessments to try to capture a variety driver selection and evaluation. Driver assessment activi- of safety-relevant characteristics; trying to assess the ties interact with other carrier safety activities such as train- "whole person." ing, communications, and behavioral safety management. Using the new FMCSA PSP service. Newman et al. in "Safety in Work Vehicles: A Multilevel Conducting a fresh and updated carrier assessment of Study Linking Safety Values and Individual Predictors to driver medical condition, regardless of driver medical Work Related Driving Courses" measured both the safety qualifications status. This may involve follow-up tests values of individual drivers and the supervisory practices such as sleep studies. applied to all drivers in test fleets. They found that indi- Reviewing driver records with special focus on egre- vidual driver attitudes (e.g., toward rule violations) were gious violations (e.g., reckless driving). predictive of safety, but that "across-the-board" effects Checking criminal background as it is relevant to both were associated with fleet manager and first-line supervi- security and safety. sor behaviors. Drivers reported fewer accidents when they Assessing past crashes in regard to preventability and, were motivated by company practices to drive safely. This when possible, specific causes. motivation was related to both fleet manager and direct Conducting a road and range driving test of every supervisor behaviors and perceived safety values. Effec- applicant using a standardized checklist or rating form. tive fleet management practices seem to bring out the best Conducting a standardized interview designed to tap and minimize the worst in drivers. key driver safety-related traits.